Flashcards in Unit 3 - Pleural Space Disease Deck (44)
What air effusion known as?
What is lymph effusion known as?
What is pus effusion known as?
Whatis blood effusion known as?
What is 'water' (pure transudate) effusion known as?
What is organ effusion known as?
What is the pleura?
thin layer of mesothelial cells
What is visceral pleura?
pleura that covers lung surface
What is parietal pleura?
pleura that lines thoracic wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum
What is pleural fluid volume determined by?
Starling's forces, lymphatic drainage, and mesothelial cells
What are the different mechanisms that can cause pleural effusion?
Increased venous hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure, impairment of lymphatic drainage, and increased vascular permeability
What can cause increased venous hydrostatic pressure?
CHF, HWD, venous thrombosis, and neoplasia
What can cause decreased oncotic pressure?
What can cause impairment of lymphatic drainage?
increased venous pressure, lymphatic trauma, neoplasia, and lung lobe torsion
What can cause increased vascular permeability?
pancreatitis, FIP, and neoplasia
What is the pattern of dyspnea with pleural effusion (if present)?
What do you expect to hear on auscultation of a patient with pleural effusion?
Muffled/absent breath sounds
What physical exam parameters should be noted along with pleural effusion?
Other cardiopulmonary abnormalities, thoracic compression, peripheral lymph nodes, abdominal palpation for masses, pain, and ascites, fever, mucous membranes, cranial nerves, and BCS/muscle condition
If in respiratory distress, what is the first step to treating pleural effusion?
What is the first step to treating pleural effusion if the patient is not in respiratory distress?
thoracic imaging and minimum database
What supplies do you need for a thoracocentesis?
needle, over-the-needle or butterfly catheter, syringe, 3-way stopcock, extension tubing, sterile gloves, and bowl
What is the ideal position for a thoracocentesis?
Where should your needle be inserted for a thoracocentesis if its to get rid of air?
7th to 9th intercostal space, in front of the rib, about 2/3 of the way up between CCJ and spine
Where should your needle be inserted for a thoracocentesis if its to get rid of fluid?
7th to 9th intercostal space, in front of the rib, closer to the CCJ
What would you use EDTA tube for for effusion?
to preserve cell morphology for cytology
What would you use a red-top tube for for effusion?
various biochemical tests
What is the composition of transudates?
low protein, low cellular pleural fluid
What are transudates caused by?
low oncotic pressure or increased hydrostatic pressure from early heart failure
What are modified transudates?
transudates that have been 'modified' by the addition of cells, protein, and/or chyle