Unit 3 - Pleural Space Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 - Pleural Space Disease Deck (44)
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1

What air effusion known as?

pneumothorax

2

What is lymph effusion known as?

chylothorax

3

What is pus effusion known as?

pyothorax

4

Whatis blood effusion known as?

hemothorax

5

What is 'water' (pure transudate) effusion known as?

hydrothorax

6

What is organ effusion known as?

diaphragmatic hernia

7

What is the pleura?

thin layer of mesothelial cells

8

What is visceral pleura?

pleura that covers lung surface

9

What is parietal pleura?

pleura that lines thoracic wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum

10

What is pleural fluid volume determined by?

Starling's forces, lymphatic drainage, and mesothelial cells

11

What are the different mechanisms that can cause pleural effusion?

Increased venous hydrostatic pressure, decreased oncotic pressure, impairment of lymphatic drainage, and increased vascular permeability

12

What can cause increased venous hydrostatic pressure?

CHF, HWD, venous thrombosis, and neoplasia

13

What can cause decreased oncotic pressure?

hypoalbuminemia

14

What can cause impairment of lymphatic drainage?

increased venous pressure, lymphatic trauma, neoplasia, and lung lobe torsion

15

What can cause increased vascular permeability?

pancreatitis, FIP, and neoplasia

16

What is the pattern of dyspnea with pleural effusion (if present)?

restrictive

17

What do you expect to hear on auscultation of a patient with pleural effusion?

Muffled/absent breath sounds

18

What physical exam parameters should be noted along with pleural effusion?

Other cardiopulmonary abnormalities, thoracic compression, peripheral lymph nodes, abdominal palpation for masses, pain, and ascites, fever, mucous membranes, cranial nerves, and BCS/muscle condition

19

If in respiratory distress, what is the first step to treating pleural effusion?

thoracocentesis

20

What is the first step to treating pleural effusion if the patient is not in respiratory distress?

thoracic imaging and minimum database

21

What supplies do you need for a thoracocentesis?

needle, over-the-needle or butterfly catheter, syringe, 3-way stopcock, extension tubing, sterile gloves, and bowl

22

What is the ideal position for a thoracocentesis?

sternal recumbency

23

Where should your needle be inserted for a thoracocentesis if its to get rid of air?

7th to 9th intercostal space, in front of the rib, about 2/3 of the way up between CCJ and spine

24

Where should your needle be inserted for a thoracocentesis if its to get rid of fluid?

7th to 9th intercostal space, in front of the rib, closer to the CCJ

25

What would you use EDTA tube for for effusion?

to preserve cell morphology for cytology

26

What would you use a red-top tube for for effusion?

various biochemical tests

27

What is the composition of transudates?

low protein, low cellular pleural fluid

28

What are transudates caused by?

low oncotic pressure or increased hydrostatic pressure from early heart failure

29

What are modified transudates?

transudates that have been 'modified' by the addition of cells, protein, and/or chyle

30

What can cause modified transudates?

Right sided heart failure, pericardial disease, neoplasia, chylothorax, lung lobe torsion, and idiopathic

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