Infectious Dz - Blood Borne 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infectious Dz - Blood Borne 2 Deck (89)
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1

What are hemotropic mycoplasmas also known as?

Haemobartonellosis

2

Where do hemotropic mycoplasmas reside?

on the RBC surface

3

What causes haemobartonellosis in cats?

Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum, and Candidatus mycoplasma turicensus

4

What is the most pathogenic cause of haemobartonellosis in cats?

Mycoplasma haemofelis

5

What does Mycoplasma haemofelis cause in immunocompetent cats?

moderate to severe hemolytic anemia

6

What causes feline infectious anemia?

Mycoplasma haemofelis

7

What is infection with hemoplasmas associated with in cats (risk factors)?

the male sex, nonpedigree status, and outdoor access

8

What causes haemobartonellosis in dogs?

Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum

9

True or False: Clinical disease of Haemobartonellosis is more common in dogs.

False - it is more common in cats

10

How are hemotropic Mycoplasmas transmitted?

Not entirely known - fleas and other arthropod vectors, biting (blood exchange not just saliva), and blood transfusions

11

When does anemia occur post infection of Mycoplasma haemofelis?

2-34 days after infection

12

What occurs in the acute phase of M. haemofelis infection?

Extravascular hemolysis

13

What causes the anemia in the acute phase of M. haemofelis infection?

It is caused by erythrocyte bound antibodies leading to extravascular hemolysis

14

If the acute phase of M. haemofelis infection is not treated, what is the mortality rate?

1/3 of cats will die

15

True or False: Cats can be chronically infected with M. haemofelis even though they have recovered from their illness.

True

16

What are the clinical signs of M. haemofelis infection?

Lethargy, inappetence, pallor, weakness, weight loss, and dehydration

17

If anemia develops rapidly in patients with infection of M. haemofelis, what clinical signs will be present?

Vocalize, collapse, neurologic signs, and death

18

What will a patient show in physical examination when infected with M. haemofelis?

Fever, weakness, pallor, tachypnea, and tachycardia

19

What will a CBC show in actively infected M. haemofelis patients?

regenerative anemia (reticulocytosis, macrocytosis, nucleated RBCs, polychromasia, hypochromasia) and the blood may autoagglutinate

20

What will a chemistry show in actively infected M. haemofelis patients?

Increased ALT from hypoxia, mild to moderate hyperbilirubinemia, prerenal azotemia, and hyperproteinemia

21

What will a UA show in patients with M. haemofelis?

+/- bilirubinuria

22

How can Haemobartonellosis be diagnosed?

Cytology and PCR

23

What is the test of choice for diagnosing Haemobartonellosis?

PCR

24

If a cat tests positive for M. haemominutum or M. turicensus on PCR and has anemia, what should be done next?

You should look for alternate causes of anemia because these agents are unlikely to cause anemia

25

When should Haemobartonellosis be treated?

When clinical signs and lab abnormalities are consistent with hemoplasmosis

26

What can be used to treat Haemobartonellosis?

Doxycycline (tx of choice). Marbofloxacin, and Pradofloxacin as well as supportive care

27

What supportive care should be given to patients with Haemobartonellosis?

IV fluids, blood transfusions, +/- glucocorticoid to suppress associated immune-mediated hemolytic process

28

How is Haemobartonellosis prevented?

Keep cats indoors, flea and tick control, and screen blood donors

29

Which of the following should make you question your diagnosis of anemia due to hemotropic Mycoplasma in a 2 YO MC DSH cat?

a. The cats anemia resolved with doxycycline therapy

b. The cat is FeLV/FIV negative

c. The cat lives in a multicat household and none of the other cats are sick

d. The cat's blood is autoagglutinating

e. Your PCR comes back as positive for M. haemominutum, but negative for M. haemofelis and M. turicensis

e. Your PCR comes back as positive for M. haemominutum, but negative for M. haemofelis and M. turicensis

30

What structures do Erlichia species create in their infected hosts?

morulae (bacterial cluster) within phagosomes of circulating leukocytes

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