Cardio - Congenital Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardio - Congenital Diseases Deck (58)
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1

How is a grade I murmur described?

Soft murmur heard in only 1 valve location, only in very quiet room, may only be intermittent

2

How is a grade II murmur described?

Soft murmur heard consistently, but only in 1 valve area

3

How is a grade III murmur described?

Moderate murmur heard in multiple valve locations on one side of the chest

4

How is a grade IV murmur described?

Loud murmur heard on both sides of the chest

5

How is a grade V murmur described?

Loud murmur heard at all valve locations associated with precordial thrill

6

How is a grade VI murmur described?

Loud murmur heard at all valve locations, even with stethoscope held 1 cm from chest wall

7

What are the locations for describing murmurs?

L apical, L basilar, R apical, parasternal

8

What are the timing categories for murmurs?

Systolic, diastolic, continous, to-and-fro

9

What are ways to describe the quality of a murmur?

Regurgitant (plateau), ejection (crescendo-decrescendo), machinery, decrescendo

10

What are "innocent" puppy/kitten murmurs?

physiologic murmurs without structural heart disease

11

Why are physiologic murmurs common in puppies and kittens?

They have larger SV than adults --> turbulence in Ao/PA

Thinner chest walls

Higher SNS tone

Anemia (lower blood viscosity)

12

What are characteristics of innocent murmurs?

Soft (grade I-III), L-sided, early or mid-systolic, disappear by 4-6 months

13

What are the most common congenital heart diseases in puppies?

PDA, PS, SAS

14

What is a PDA?

patent ductus arteriosus;

Failure of closure of ductus arteriosus (descending Ao --> MPA)

15

What are the consequences of a PDA?

L-R shunt --> LV volume overload --> L-CHF

16

What is the signalment for PDA?

Poodle, Sheltie, Pomeranian, Cocker, Maltese, Yorkie, GSD

Female > male

17

What kind of murmur is heard with PDA?

Continuous "washing machine" murmur at L heart base

18

What is the prognosis of PDA with and without treatment?

With = normal life

Without = POOR

19

What are the 2 types of treatment for PDA?

Interventional catheterization (ACDO)

Surgical ligation (thoracotomy)

20

What is PS?

Pulmonic Stenosis:

Congenital narrowing/thickening of the pulmonic valve

21

What are the consequences of PS?

RV pressure overload --> R-CHF, syncope, arrhythmias

22

What is the signalment for PS?

Smaller breeds (3 Bs: Boxer, Beagle, Bulldog), Chihuahua, Schnauzer

Male = female

23

What murmur type is heard with PS?

Systolic ejection murmur at the L heart base

24

What is the prognosis of PS?

Depends on severity;

Mild = normal lifespan

Severe = guarded with no treatment, good with balloon valvuloplasty

25

What are the treatment options for PS?

Mild/moderate = atenolol

Severe = balloon valvuloplasty

26

When should you refer a systolic L-sided murmur to a cardiologist?

If it is LOUD (grade IV or higher);

If it is soft, recheck and refer if still present >6 months

27

What is SAS?

Subaortic Stenosis

Congenital ridge/narrowing below aortic valve

28

What is unique about SAS?

The lesion continues to pregress throughout growth

29

What are the consequences of SAS?

LV pressure overload --> LVH --> syncope, arrhythmias, sudden death, L-CHF, endocarditis

30

What is the signalment for SAS?

Large breeds (Newife, Boxer, GSD, Gonden, Rottie)

Male = female

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