Endocrinology - Glucose homeostasis... Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology - Glucose homeostasis... Deck (65)
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1

Glucose is the sole source of energy for the ________.

brain

2

What is the range for normal blood glucose?

70-120 mg/dl

3

What are the exogenous sources of glucose?

intestinal absorption

4

What are the endogenous sources of glucose?

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

5

Post-prandially, how long does glucose provide fuel for and for what?

fuel for 4-8 hours of cell metabolism

6

In the fasted state, what sources maintain normoglycemia?

The endogenous sources

7

What is glycogenolysis?

breakdown of hepatic glycogen stores into glucose

8

When are the hepatic glycogen stores exhausted during fasting?

after 2-3 days of fasting

9

When glycogen stores are depleted in fasted patients, what takes over to maintain normoglycemia?

gluconeogenesis

10

What is gluconeogenesis?

The formation of glucose from precursors

11

What are the precurosors for gluconeogenesis?

Amino acids, glycerol, and lactate

12

Where does gluconeogenesis occur?

Mainly in the liver, but it can also occur in the kidney

13

Aside from the exogenous and endogenous sources of glucose, what is also required for normoglycemia?

hepatic function/hepatic blood supply and a functioning endocrine system

14

What does insulin do?

Promote the cellular uptake of glucose, AA, FA, and electrolytes
Promotes the storage of glucose as glycogen
Inhibits lipolysis and subsequent release of FFA into circulation
Inhibits gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis

15

Hypoglycemia is when BG falls below what level?

70 mg/dl

16

What is the normal response to hypoglycemia?

There is a stimulation of a release of diabetogenic hormones - glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, and growth hormone (unimportantly progesterone and thyroxine too)

17

What is the net effect of the diabetogenic hormones?

Promote gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, decrease peripheral glucose use, and shut down insulin secretion

18

What is the net result of the effect of diabetogenic hormones?

to normalize blood glucose levels

19

What hormones increase BG?

cortisol, epinehrine, glucagon, and growth hormone

20

What hormone decreases BG?

insulin

21

What can cause hypoglycemia?

Lack of intestinal absorption, lack of hepatic production, endocrine disorders, increased glucose utilization, and miscellaneous

22

What can cause lack of intestinal absorption of glucose?

severe malnutrition/starvation and severe intestinal disease

23

What can cause lack of hepatic production of glucose?

Portosystemic shunts, hepatic failure, and glycogen storage diseases

24

What are the sub-categories of endocrine disorders can cause hypoglycemia?

Lack of diabetogenic hormones or too much insulin

25

What endocrine disorders can cause lack of diabetogenic hormones?

hypoadrenocorticism - cortisol deficiency

26

What endocrine disorders can cause the production of too much insulin?

iatrogenic and insulinoma

27

What can cause increased glucose utilization?

sepsis, pollycythemia, and extreme exertion

28

What miscellaneous causes can lead to hypoglycemia?

Juvenile hypoglycemia, xylitol toxicity, paraneoplastic, and artifact

29

What is the pneumonic to remember the eitiologies for hypoglycemia?

SHIN SPLATS - Sepsis, Hunting dog hypoglycemia, Insulin overdose/iatrogenic, Neoplasia, Spurious, Puppy or polycythemia, Liver disease, Addison's disease, Toxin, and Storage diseases

30

What is the first area affected by hypoglycemia?

the cerebral cortex

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