What is the origin of the complex in image A?
What is the calculated heart rate in ECG strip A?
8 complexes in 30 big boxes
8*20 = 160 bpm
What is the pathophysiologic etiology of heart failure in a dog with DCM?
A) Too much afterload
B) Too much preload (volume overload)
C) Not enough contractility (decreased inotropy)
D) Not enough relaxation/fillinf (decreased lusitropy)
What is the GOLD STANDARD diagnostic test for screening dogs for ventricular arrhythmias associated with DCM?
What 2 medications have been shown to slow progression of DCM in Dobermans during the asymptomatic phase?
(i.e. prolong time to development of CHF)
ACE inhibitor (enalapril/benazepril)
Name 2 ORAL medications that can be used to treat ventricular arrhythmias in dogs with DCM.
In patients with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade, diastolic filling of the ___ side of the heart is impaired.
What are the hallmarks of pericardial effusion on a thoracic radiograph?
Enlarged & rounded cardiac silhouette, dilated caudal vena cava, small pulmonary arteries and veins
What is normal pulmonary artery systolic pressure?
Is left-sided heart disease pre- or post-capillary?
Is chronic bronchopulmonary disease pre- or post-capillary?
What drug is used for treatment of pulmonary hypertension (direct pulmonary vasodilator)?
If an asymptomatic dog tests positive for heartworm disease (positive HW antigen test), what 2 medications should be started IMMEDIATELY (on the day of diagnosis)?
1. HW preventative
You are examining a patient that presented to you for a recent onset of lethargy and weakness. On examination you note that the patient is obese and it is difficult to hear the heart sounds, he has a rapid hear rate at 180 bpm, and you do not appreciate a heart murmur. The patient has jugular venous distension, a palpable abdominal fluid wave, and normokinetic to hypokinetic femoral pulses that vary with the patient's respiratory cycle. What is the most likely cause of the patient's physical exam findings.
Pericardial effusion with tamponade
You are working as an emergency clinician on a busy night in the ER. You have two dogs that present for collapse and you confirm that they both have pericardial effusion. You want to start treatments on the least stable patient first.
What diagnostic test do you recommend for the patients to compare their hemodynamic stability?
A 7-year-old male castrated Boxer presents for an episode of collapse. On physical examination, you auscult frequent premature beats with pulse deficits, but no heart murmur. An ECG shows frequent monomorphic ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) of right ventricular origin. Thoracic radiographs are unremarkable. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment?
E) No treatment
Sildenafil exerts which of the following hemodynamic effects on the right ventricle?
A) Increases contractility
B) Decreases preload
C) Decreases afterload
D) Increases HR