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Flashcards in Infectious Dz - Lepto Deck (53)
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1

What type of bacteria is Leptospira?

a gram negative spirochete

2

What are the two main pathogenic Leptospira species in dogs?

L. interrogans and L. kirschneri

3

What are the specific reservoir hosts for Leptospires?

Rats, mice, muskrats, opossums, and squirrels

4

What can kill Leptospira?

frost, disinfectants, and UV radiation

5

Where can Leptospira survive for long periods of time?

water and wet soil

6

True or False: Seasonality of Leptospirosis outbreaks are associated with rainfall

True

7

Where is Leptospirosis distributeed?

Across the US but here are high incidences around the great lakes, in the Mississippi and Ohio river valley

8

When do Leptospirosis outbreaks most commonly occur?

In the fall

9

How does infection with Leptospirosis happen?

Infection is by ingestion or contact with contaminated water/urine
also transplacental and venereal

10

What is the rout of entry of Leptospira?

intact mucosal surfaces or skin abrasions

11

In a recent study, what dogs have the highest prevalence of Leptospirosis?

In dogs less than 15 pounds
Yorkies are the highest prevalence breed

12

Bottom line, what dogs can get Leptospirosis?

Any dog

13

Explain the infection timeline of Leptospirosis?

Day 0 - mucosal penetration, multiplication in vasculature
Day 3-4 - Multiplication
Day 5-6 - Vascular damage and thrombocytopenia
Day 7-8 - Clinical disease
Day 10 - Antibody titer increases
Day 12 - renal colonization
Day 14-15 - Leptospiruria

14

What clinical feature is often overlooked in patients with Leptospirosis?

a transient fever

15

What other clinical features do patients with Leptospirosis have?

Renal injury (50-80%)
Hepatic injury (14-47%)
Lung injury (2%)

16

What clinical signs are associated with Leptospirosis?

PU/PD, uremia, icterus, tachypnea, cough, harsh lung sounds, uveitis and bleeding tendencies

17

How can you diagnose Leptospirosis?

Minimum database, coagulation panel, imaging, dark field microscopy, culture, PCR, and serology

18

What will you find on minimum database in patients with Leptospirosis?

Thrombocytopenia, azotemia, increased ALT/ALP, hyperbilirubinemia, and signs of tubular damage (glucosuria and proteinuria)

19

What may you find on a coagulation panel in patients with Leptospirosis?

Increased PT/PTT

20

What may you see on thoracic radiographs in patients with Leptospirosis?

Interstitial to nodular pattern

21

What may you see on ultrasound in patients with Leptospirosis?

Perirenal, abdominal fluid, pyelectasia, and hepatic changes

22

Why would you want to use dark-field microscopy to diagnose Leptospirosis?

To examine live organisms in urine

23

Why is culture not commonly performed to diagnosis Leptospirosis?

because it is a long process

24

What does PCR detect?

DNA of the organism

25

Why would you want to do PCR for Leptospirosis diagnosis?

because it can allow for an earlier diagnosis over serology

26

Does a negative PCR result rule out Leptospirosis?

no

27

What can cause a false-negative Leptospirosis?

Administration of 1-2 doses of antibiotics

28

What serologic tests can be done to diagnose Leptospirosis?

Microscopic agglutination test (MAT), SNAP Lepto, and Witness Lepto

29

What does the Microscopic Agglutination Test based on?

Agglutination of live cultures in contact with serial dilutions of the patients serum

30

What is a positive MAT result?

Titer of >1:1600 or 4-fold increase in convalescent antibody titers

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