Dermatology - Scabies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dermatology - Scabies Deck (56)
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1

What etiological agent causes scabies (sarcoptic mange)?

Sarcoptes scabiei var canis

2

What species does Sarcoptes scabiei var canis typically infest?

Dogs Note: It has been reported to rarely infest cats

3

How is scabies spread?

it is highly contagious through direct contact or fomites

4

Where does the life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei var canis take place? What are the life stages?

Entirely on the host in 17-21 days. Egg, larva, nymph, adult

5

How long do scabies mites typically live on the host?

for 2-4 weeks

6

What can clinical signs due to Sarcoptes scabiei var canis be the result of?

mechanial irritation, toxic secretions of the mite, and/or hypersensitivity reactions to the mite or substances elaborated by the mite

7

Is there zoonotic potential from scabies?

Yes - the zoonotic potential is high; exposure results in extremely pruritic papulopustular eruptions

8

What is the hallmark of scabies?

intense pruritus

9

What are the key historical clues for scabies?

Multiple animals showing signs in the same household, the onset of pruritus after boarding or kenneling, progressive pruritus, progressively less response of the pruritus to glucocortiocoid therapy, the presense of humans in the household with lesions

10

What lesions are associated with scabies?

papulopustular eruptions, hemorrhagic crusts, erythema, scaling, and patchy alopecia

11

What lesions are associated with chronic scabies?

Lichenification and hyperpigmentation

12

Where are lesions due to scabies classically distributed?

in the periorbital area (P), the margins of the ears (E), elbows (E), and lateral aspects of the extremities (L)

13

Aside from skin lesions, what also is a consistent finding with patients that have scabies?

generalized peripheral lymphadenomegaly

14

What reflex is highly suggestive scabies?

the pinna-femoral reflex

15

How do you diagnose scabies?

Skin scrapings - you may need to do up to 80 scrapings on a dog before finding evidence of scabies

16

What can you centrifuge with scabies scrapings to concentrate the mites?

KOH/Sugar

17

What must you always ask owners when an animal is suspected of having scapies?

if there is human involvement

18

Can you do a fecal flotation to diagnose scabies?

Yes you can check one - sometimes the patients ingest the mites, but it shouldn't be the first test you do

19

In cases of scabies, what does histopathology of lesional skin show?

it shows perivascular dermatitis with eosinophilic infiltrates

20

What are the general principles of therapy for scabies cases?

1. Treatment should be initiated without ID of mite, if the index is high 2. Treat all susceptible animals in the house - this includes house 3. Treat the environment by vacuuming, spray with flea sprays, and launder the bedding 4. Glucocorticoids can alleviate discomfort 5. Tell clients to see their physician if they have skin lesions

21

What may be necessary to do to long-haired dogs with scabies?

A total body clip

22

What will be helpful to remove the crusts and increase the effectiveness of the treatment dips?

Keratolytic baths (sulfur/salicylic acid)

23

What are effective topical dips to treat scabies?

2-3% lime sulfur applied weekly for 3-6 treatments and Amitraz - 2-3 rinses weekly

24

What is the topical treatment of choice for patients with scabies?

Selamectin (Revolution) - three doses at 2-3 week intervals

25

What other topical treatments can be given to patients with scabies?

Moxidectin (Advantage-Multi) and Fipronil (Frontline) spray

26

Theere are two systemic therapies for scapies, what are they?

Ivermectin and milbemycin (Interceptor)

27

Ivermectin is not currently approved in the US for use in dogs and cats to treat scabies. However, what is the recommended dosing?

0.3 mg/kg orally repeated weekly for 3-4 doses

28

What side effects are associated with Ivermectin?

neurologic in nature and may include sudden death

29

What is the recommended dose for milbemycin (Interceptor)?

It is not readily available as of 2014, but the recommended dose is 2/mg/kg, twice weekly for 3 weeks

30

A

Topical

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