Neuro - Diseases of the Intracranial Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro - Diseases of the Intracranial Nervous System Deck (44)
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1

What clinical findings are associated with degenerative diseases?

Usually begin earlier in life (in animals less than 1 year of age), progressive clinical signs, often multifocal signs, and non-painful

2

What is hydrocephalus?

abnormal dilation of intracranial ventricles

3

True or False: Hydrocephalus is only congenital.

false - it can also be acquired

4

What breeds is congenital hydrocephalus associated?

dome-shaped skull breeds

5

What abnormality can hydrocephalus be associated with?

a fontanelle

6

What can cause acquired hydrocephalus?

tumor, inflammation, trauma, and/or bleeding

7

What are the pathophysiologic sequela associated with hydrocephalus?

Increases in intracranial pressure then decreases in cerebral blood flow then neuronal dysfunction, then herniation, and then cell death

8

True or False: The pathophysiologic sequela of hydrocephalus are unique to it.

False - they are true of all structural intracranial diseases

9

What is a syringomyelia?

fluid filled cavities of the spinal cord

10

What is the pathophysiology of a syringomyelia?

there is often a prolem at the foramen magnum or the fourth ventricle

11

What breed is the poster child for syringomyelia? Why?

Cavalier king charles spaniels - their skull is too small for their brain contents

12

What metabolic diseases can lead to neurologic signs?

Hypo or hyper - glucose, sodium, potassium, and calcium

13

True or False: Brain tumors can be primary or metastatic.

true

14

True or False: Neoplasia in structures adjacent to the brain can cause neurologic signs

true

15

What are some of the primary brain tumors (general)?

meningioma, glioma, and choroid plexus/ependymoma

16

What are some types of gliomas?

astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed, glioblastoma multiforme

17

What is the most common primary brain tumor of dogs and cats?

meningioma

18

What do meningiomas arise from?

meninges (arachnoid)

19

Are meningiomas possibly benign or malignant?

benign, but there are malignant varietes

20

How do meningiomas cause pathophysiologic effects?

due to the volume

21

How are neoplasias treated?

surgical removal, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, treatment of elevated intracranial pressure, and/or treatment of seizures

22

What nutritional deficit can cause neurological signs in cats that aren't eating?

thiamine deficiency

23

What clinical findings are associated with thiamine deficiency in cats?

vestibular signs, ventral neck flexion, and dilated pupils

24

What is encephalitis?

inflammation of the brain

25

What is meningitis?

inflammation of the meninges

26

Is encephalitis due to an infectious agent only?

No, there can be non-infectious or infectious causes

27

What are the common infectious causes of encephalitis in dogs?

viral, fungal, protozoal, or rickessial

28

What viral causes can lead to encephalitis in dogs?

distemper, herpes, and parainfluenza

29

What fungal causes can lead to encephalitis in dogs?

blasto or coccidio

30

What protozoal causes can cause encephalitis in dogs?

toxo or neospora

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