Flashcards in Neuro - Diseases of the Intracranial Nervous System Deck (44)
What clinical findings are associated with degenerative diseases?
Usually begin earlier in life (in animals less than 1 year of age), progressive clinical signs, often multifocal signs, and non-painful
What is hydrocephalus?
abnormal dilation of intracranial ventricles
True or False: Hydrocephalus is only congenital.
false - it can also be acquired
What breeds is congenital hydrocephalus associated?
dome-shaped skull breeds
What abnormality can hydrocephalus be associated with?
What can cause acquired hydrocephalus?
tumor, inflammation, trauma, and/or bleeding
What are the pathophysiologic sequela associated with hydrocephalus?
Increases in intracranial pressure then decreases in cerebral blood flow then neuronal dysfunction, then herniation, and then cell death
True or False: The pathophysiologic sequela of hydrocephalus are unique to it.
False - they are true of all structural intracranial diseases
What is a syringomyelia?
fluid filled cavities of the spinal cord
What is the pathophysiology of a syringomyelia?
there is often a prolem at the foramen magnum or the fourth ventricle
What breed is the poster child for syringomyelia? Why?
Cavalier king charles spaniels - their skull is too small for their brain contents
What metabolic diseases can lead to neurologic signs?
Hypo or hyper - glucose, sodium, potassium, and calcium
True or False: Brain tumors can be primary or metastatic.
True or False: Neoplasia in structures adjacent to the brain can cause neurologic signs
What are some of the primary brain tumors (general)?
meningioma, glioma, and choroid plexus/ependymoma
What are some types of gliomas?
astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, mixed, glioblastoma multiforme
What is the most common primary brain tumor of dogs and cats?
What do meningiomas arise from?
Are meningiomas possibly benign or malignant?
benign, but there are malignant varietes
How do meningiomas cause pathophysiologic effects?
due to the volume
How are neoplasias treated?
surgical removal, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, treatment of elevated intracranial pressure, and/or treatment of seizures
What nutritional deficit can cause neurological signs in cats that aren't eating?
What clinical findings are associated with thiamine deficiency in cats?
vestibular signs, ventral neck flexion, and dilated pupils
What is encephalitis?
inflammation of the brain
What is meningitis?
inflammation of the meninges
Is encephalitis due to an infectious agent only?
No, there can be non-infectious or infectious causes
What are the common infectious causes of encephalitis in dogs?
viral, fungal, protozoal, or rickessial
What viral causes can lead to encephalitis in dogs?
distemper, herpes, and parainfluenza
What fungal causes can lead to encephalitis in dogs?
blasto or coccidio