Dermatology - Pyoderma (Bacterial-induced Dermatologic Disorders) Flashcards Preview

Small Animal Medicine > Dermatology - Pyoderma (Bacterial-induced Dermatologic Disorders) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology - Pyoderma (Bacterial-induced Dermatologic Disorders) Deck (117)
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1

What are the primary bacterial pathogens of the skin encountered in small animal practice?

S. psuedintermedius, S. schleferi, S. aureus (in decreasing order of prevalence)

2

What does staphylococci produce that may induce host reactions or protect the organism?

enzymes (like Beta-lactamase proteases) and toxins (Protein A)

3

What other bacterial isolates can be found in skin infections?

Proteus, pseudomonas, E. coli, and streptococcal organisms

4

What about bacterial skin infections favors bacterial growth?

Inflammation of the skin leads to microenvironmental changes (increased temperature and humidity)

5

What predisposing factors are associated with bacterial skin infections?

signalment, anatomic factors, and environmental factors

6

What do some breeds have that predispose them to bacterial skin infections?

IgA deficiency

7

What anatomic factors predispose them to bacterial skin infections?

skin folds and hair coat type

8

What environmental factors predispose patients to skin infections?

temperature, humidity, frequent swimming by the pet

9

What is the most common primary underlying cause of bacterial skin infections?

allergies - atopy specifically

10

What is the second most common primary cause of bacterial skin infections?

endocrinopathies - hypothyroidism (specifically this one) and hyperadrenocorticism

11

What other primary factors, aside from the top two, are associated with bacterial skin infections?

ectoparasitic infestations, scaling disorders/disorders of cornification, immunodeficiencies, skin trauma or maceration (over hydration)

12

What lesions are seen in pyoderma?

papules, pustules, epidermal collarettes, erythema, scale/crusts, patchy alopecia, and draining (fistulous) tracts

13

What is the severity of pruritus in bacterial skin infections?

mild to moderate

14

What is the classical lesion for superficial folliculitis?

patchy alopecia

15

What are the differential diagnoses for pustules?

pyodermma, autoimmune skin diseases, dermatophytosis, eosinophilic dermatitis, sterile pyogranulomatous dermatitis, and panniculitis

16

What is the goal of specific diagnostics for bacterial skin infections?

they are intended to confirm the presence of a bacterial infection, then define the causative organism, and identify the primary (underlying) condition

17

What specific diagnostics can be used for diagnosing the type of bacterial skin infection?

dermatologic data base, cytology, culture and susceptibility/sensitivity testing, routine hematology, evaluation of the thyroid gland, immunologic evaluations, and skin biopsies

18

When is a cytology a key diagnostic tool in bacterial skin infections?

whenever pustules, papules, or draining tracts are present

19

What type of samples should be used for cytologies in bacterial skin infection cases?

they should be collected from intact lesions, such as a pustule, when possible

20

When is culture and susceptibility/sensitivity testing indicated?

recurring infections, failure of the patient to respond to traditional treatment, when the only bacteria on cytology are rod-shaped organisms, and deep pyoderma cases

21

What types of topical treatments can be used to treat bacterial skin infections?

Gels, creams, ointments, sprays, shampoo therapy, wipes, and astringents

22

What are the types of gels,creams, ointments, sprays that are used to treat bacterial dermatitis?

Benzoyl peroxide, mupriocin, povidine-iodine, chlorhexidine

23

What is Benzoyl Peroxide available as?

a gel and shampoo

24

What is the best used concentration of benzyl peroxide?

2.5% solution - higher can cause severe cutaneous irritation

25

Is benzoyl peroxide bactericidal or bacteristatic and for how long?

bactericidal for up to 48 hours after application

26

What actions do benzoyl peroxide have?

follicular flushing action, keratolytic, astringent, degreasing, a debriding action and promotes wound healing

27

What bacteria is Mupriocin effective against?

staphylococci and gram negative bacteria

28

Is Povidine-iodine bactericidal or bacteristatic?

bactericidal

29

How is Chlorhexidine available?

as sprays and shampoo

30

What active ingredients in shampoos are effective in bacterial dermatitis?

Most to least active - benzoyl peroxide, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, triclosan, sulfur/salicylic acid

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