Cardio - Heartworm Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardio - Heartworm Disease Deck (24)
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1

Heartworms are adapted to live in the _____.

pulmonary artery

2

What is the cycle of HWD?

Mosquito bites infected dog and ingests microfilaria --> Mff grow to L3 (Infective) --> mosquito bites new dog and injects L3 into dog --> L3s grow to adults in the dog --> migrate to PA --> adults mate and produce more Mff --> cycle repeats

3

What is clinical HWD in dogs due to?

Mature adults

4

What is clinical HWD in cats due to?

HARD - larvae producing a respiratory disease

5

How do dogs and cats respond to the antigen test?

Dogs will test positive if infected, cats may or may not test positive (have very few # of worms so may not have females to produce uterine Ag)

6

Ab test suggests _____.

exposure

7

Ag test suggests _____.

infection

8

When are HW preventatives effective?

They kill L3s and early L4s

9

When should pets begin getting HW preventative?

At 8 weeks

10

How often should you test for HW?

Ag test annually and Mff test if positive

11

What should you do if you suspect a false (+) on an Ag test?

Repeat test (preferably one from a different manufacturer)

12

What is the protocol for HW treatment in dogs?

  1. Positive Hw Ag detected
  2. Begin/continue preventative
  3. Doxycycline 10 mg/kg BID x 4 weeks
  4. In 2 months: 3-injection protocol of melarsomine
    1. Injection #1 @ day 60
    2. Injection #2 @ day 90
    3. Injection #3 @ day 91
  5. Pred taper with each melarsomine injection
  6. EXERCISE RESTRICTION
  7. Repeat Ag test 6 months after completion

13

What are some complications of HWD?

Eosinophilic pneumonitis, pulmonary vasculat disease (PHT), R-CHF (PHT), caval syndrome, immune-mediated disease (glomerulonephritis, thrombocytopenia)

14

How is eosinophilic pneumonitis treated?

Prednisolone

15

How is pulmonary vascular disease/PHT treated?

Sildenafil

16

How is R-CHF secondary to PHT treated?

Furosemide, Pimobendan, Enalapril, Spironolactone

17

How is caval syndrome treated?

Surgical HW extraction

18

What is the prevalence of HWD in cats?

10% that of dogs

19

Why do cats have a lower worm burden than dogs?

Their immune systems are pretty good at getting rid of the worms

20

What is HARD?

HW-Associated Respiratory Disease in cats;

Eosinophilic lung disease caused by HW L4-L5 larvae

21

How does HARD present?

Mimics feline asthma

22

What test is more useful in cats?

Ab test to screen for exposure/HARD

23

How is HARD treated?

Prednisolone

24

How are adult infections treated in cats?

Continue monthly preventative and allow "self-cure" (NO melarsomine!)

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