Hematology - Levine Blood Transfusion SG Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology - Levine Blood Transfusion SG Deck (36)
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1

List three benefits of component blood therapy.

Allows the most specific and safe product to be used for each animal

Minimizes transfusion volume

Conserves products

2

 List some clinical signs that would indicate an anemic animal does need a packed red blood cell transfusion.

Hypotension, weak, dehydration, and only RBCs are missing

3

List the components contained in a bag of fresh whole blood.

RBCs, all plasma components, platelets, and white cells

4

What would transfusing whole blood (as opposed to blood components) be appropriate>

Patient needs multiple blood components

Patient needs volume

5

What is the specific indication for packed red cells?

Anemia - only RBCs are missing

6

To which patient would you give fresh frozen plasma?

  1. A dog with hemophilia B who is having a fun day at the dog park
  2. A dog with hemophilia B who is going to be spayed this afternoon
  3. A dog who ate anticoagulant rodenticide and now has a hemoabdomen
  4. Both a and b
  5. Both b and c

e. both b and c

7

Your colleague has a patient with an albumin of < 1 g/dl.  He wants to give the dog a fresh frozen plasma transfusion to improve his albumin, but asks your opinion.  What do you tell him?

It is not a good source of albumin – you would need to give plasma at a dose of 45 mL/kg to increase albumin concentration by 1 g/dl

8

You have a bag of frozen plasma in the freezer that is 3 years old.  You want to use it before it is 4 years old and you have to throw it out.  If you see an appropriate patient, you will administer this frozen plasma instead of fresh frozen plasma.  List two such appropriate patients for frozen plasma transfusion, one with a hereditary bleeding disorder and one with an acquired one.

Von Willebrand's Disease

Rodenticide toxicity

9

What are three common sources of blood components?

Commercial blood bank, in-house blood donors, and client-owned (non-resident blood donors)

10

How are blood groups defined?

by inherited antigens on the surface of the RBC

11

Canine blood groups are classified by the ______ ______ _______ system.

Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA)

12

What is the most clinically significant canine blood type because it is the most antigenic?

DEA 1

13

Do dogs have any clinically important alloantibodies present prior to sensitization with a blood transfusion?

No, dogs require sensitization prior to the formation of antibodies

14

Describe what would happen if a canine patient that is DEA 1 negative receives blood from a donor that is DEA 1 positive, then receives another unit of blood 10 days later from a DEA 1 positive donor.

The recipient will make anti-DEA 1 antibody – it takes 4-7 days to occur

When that dogs receives another unit of blood an acute hemolytic crisis can occur

15

All canine donors, at minimum, should be DEA __ typed. 

1

16

What are the three feline blood types?

Type A, Type B, and Type AB

17

Type A cats can have anti-type ___ antibodies.

B

18

Type B cats have anti-type ___ antibodies.

A

19

What will likely happen if a type B cat receives type A blood? Why?

It can kill the cat because type B cats have a strong antibody reaction to type A blood

20

Do cats with type AB blood have alloantibodies?

No they have no antibodies against either A or B

21

A type AB cat should receive what blood type, if available?

Less ideally, what blood type could be given?

What type should not be given to an AB cat?

Ideally AB

Less ideally A

B should not be given because of the strong anti-A antibodies present in the donor blood

22

A major crossmatch involves mixing _____ or plasma and _____ _____ ____ cells.

serum; donor red blood

23

Why can you perform a transfusion in a dog without crossmatching first, if it is the first transfusion?

Because there are no naturally occuring antibodies in the dog

24

Do you need to crossmatch if the dog has received a transfusion 2 weeks prior? Why?

Yes because the dog could’ve developed antibodies to the blood given at the first transfusion

25

Can you think of a reason why crossmatching might be hard in some patients with IMHA?  Hint:  Think about what you use to decide a crossmatch is not compatible. 

Agglutination is one of the main mechanisms of IMHA. The presence of agglutination or hemolysis is what rules a crossmatch as incompatible. Since IMHA patients already have agglutination in their blood, it is difficult to determine if the agglutination is due to the IMHA or the incompatibility of the crossmatch.

26

Why is it important to know the blood type of the donor and the recipient in cats (think about whether there is a universal cat donor)?

Because cats have high levels of naturally occurring antibodies to foreign antigens. There is no universal cat donor, so you can’t just give a transfusion and hope that everything will be okay

27

__ ml/kg of pRBCs raises the PCV by 1%.

1 ml/kg

28

The two broad classes of acute transfusion reactions are:

Immune-mediated (specific)

Nonimmune-mediated (nonspecific)

29

What is a common example of an acute immunologic hemolytic transfusion reaction?

Type B cats receiving Type A cells (type II reaction)

30

What likely causes acute immunologic febrile non-hemolytic reactions? How would you treat this?

  1. Cytokines in blood product or anti-WBC or anti-platelet antibodies in recipient against donor WBCs or platelets
  2. Treat – slow transfusion, consider stopping, or consider an anti-pyretic dog
    1. Consider stopping if you are worried this could be a more severe reaction like sepsis

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