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Flashcards in Cardio - Understanding HF Deck (32)
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1

What is the definition of heart failure (HF)?

CLINICAL SYNDROME wherein the heart pumps an inadequate volume of blood to meet O2 demands of tissue and prevent fluid accumulation

2

HF occurs in the face of _____ venous return (as distinguished from shock).

adequate/high

3

What type of diagnosis is HF?

Common end result of many different cardiac diseases - it is NOT a primary diagnosis

4

What factors determine CO?

HR x SV

5

What factors determine SV?

Preload, afterload, inotropy

6

What is preload?

Amount of blood coming back into heart during diastole

7

What is afterload?

All forces that resist ejection from the heart in systole

8

What are potential causes for L-HF due to too much afterload?

Systemic hypertension, congenital SAS

9

What are potential causes for L-HF due to too much preload?

Valvular disease (mitral, aortic)

Congenital - PDA, VSD, ASD

10

What are potential causes of L-HF due to not enough contractility?

DCM, myocarditis

11

What are potential causes of L-HF due to not enough relaxation/filling?

HCM

12

What are potential causes of R-HF due to too much afterload?

Pumonary hypertension, congenital PS

13

What are potential causes of R-HF due to too much preload?

valvular disease (tricuspid), congenital tricuspid dysplasia

14

What are potential causes of R-HF due to not enough contractility?

DCM, myocarditis

15

What are potential causes of R-HF due to not enough relaxation/filling?

Pericardial disease (tamponade), neoplasia

16

What are the clinical signs of forward (low output) HF?

Syncope, pallor, cyanosis, hypokinetic pulses, azotemia

(Heart is not pumping enough blood to meet demands)

17

What are the clinical signs of backward (congestive) HF?

Pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, ascites/hepatomegaly, pericardial effusion, peripheral edema

(This is the most common manifestation of HF in animals)

18

What role does the LV play in congestive HF?

Blood comes into LV from LA, which came from the lungs -->

Fluid accumulates in lungs --> pulmonary edema

19

What role does the RV play in congestive heart failure?

Blood comes into RV from RA, which came from systemic circ (vena cavae) -->

Cavitary effusions --> pleural eff, ascites, pericardial eff, peripheral edema

20

Where does the fluid go in DOGS with L-CHF?

Pulmonary edema

21

Where does the fluid go in DOGS with R-CHF?

Ascites = major

Occ = pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, peripheral edema

22

Where does the fluid go in CATS with L-CHF?

Pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion

23

Where does the fluid go in CATS with R-CHF?

Ascites = major

(Also pleural effusion and pericardial effusion)

24

A cat with pulmonary edema only and no other issues is _____ likely to have L-CHF.

not

25

Which of the body's neurohormonal compensatory systems respond to HF?

RAAS, sympathetic system

26

What activates RAAS?

Juxtaglomerular apparatus senses decrease in renal perfusion;

Also increased SNS tone

27

What are the short-term effects of RAAS?

Na+/H2O retention --> increased preload

Vasoconstriction --> increased preload and afterload

28

What are the long-term effects of RAAS?

Myocardial remodeling and fibrosis, renal and arteriolar sclerosis, cytokine activation

29

What activates the SNS?

Baroreceptors sense a decrease in BP

30

What are the short-term effects of the SNS?

Increased HR, increased contractility, vasconstriction --> increased preload and afterload

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