Renal - Urinary Incontinence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal - Urinary Incontinence Deck (57)
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1

What is dysuria?

painful urination

2

What is stranguria?

slow/strained urination

3

What is pollakiuria?

Frequent urination of small amounts

4

What is polyuria?

urination of large amounts

5

What is incontinence?

involuntary (unconscious) release of urine through the urethra

6

What is incontinence associated with (like behaviorsish)?

A wet bed, licking penis/vulva, dribbling urine while walking

7

What behaviour is associated with polyuria?

positions itself in a micturition position - increased volume of urine is associated

8

What are the general components of micturition?

nerves and muscles

9

What nerves are involved with micturition?

Hypogastric, pelvic, and pudendal

10

What muscles are involved with micturition?

Detrusor, interrnal urethral sphincter, and external urethral sphincter

11

What are the two phases of micturition?

Filling and voiding

12

Filling is associated with parasympathetic/sympathetic control under the control of norepinephrine/acetylcholine.

Sympathetic, norepinephrine

13

Voiding is associated with parasympathetic/sympathetic control under the control of norepinephrine/acetylcholine.

Parasympathetic, acetylcholine

14

What are the three broad mechanisms of urinary incontinence?

Failure of bladder to sufficiently accommodate urine
Abnormal anatomy of ureteral termination, urinary bladder or urethral development
Failure of sufficiently functional urethral closure

15

Define destrusor instability.

Involuntary bladder contractions at low bladder volumes

16

What populations should you consider that detrusor instability is the cause of incontinence?

Incontinent dogs refractory to standard therapy
ectopic ureter patients

17

How is detrusor instability treated?

Enhance bladder relaxation

18

How do you enhance bladder relaxation?

Anticholinergics (counter the pelvic nerve from contracting the bladder)- Oxybutinin and dicyclomine
Tricyclic antidepressants

19

What is/are ectopic ureters?

incorrect termination of one or both ureters

20

Where are ureters normally located?

Dorsolateral insertion with short tunneling prior to termination in trigone

21

What are the different forms of ectopic ureters? Define.

intramural - penetrates serosa at the correct spot but then tunnels and opens in a different spot of the bladder
extramural - open in urethral

22

Do males or females typically get ectopic ureters more commonly?

Females - they also present earlier

23

What are the breed predisposition for ectopic ureters?

Siberian Husky, labrador retriever, golden retriever, newfoundland, english bulldog, westies

24

True or False: Most cases of ectopic ureters are bilateral.

True

25

Is intramural or extramural ectopic ureters more common?

intramulal

26

Where is the most common termination of ectopic ureters?

the urethra

27

What abnormalities are associated with ectopic ureters?

UTIs, hydroureter, hydronephrosis/pyelectasia, and vestibulovaginal septal remnants

28

How are ectopic ureters diagnosed? What is the gold standard?

Contrast cystourethrogram
US
CT
Cystoscopy - Gold standard

29

How are extramural ectopic ureters treated?

Neoureterocystostomy - reimplantation in correct location in the bladder

30

How are intramural ectopic ureters treated?

Neoureterotomy and cytoscopic-guided laser ablation

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