Flashcards in Renal - Urinary Incontinence Deck (57)
What is dysuria?
What is stranguria?
What is pollakiuria?
Frequent urination of small amounts
What is polyuria?
urination of large amounts
What is incontinence?
involuntary (unconscious) release of urine through the urethra
What is incontinence associated with (like behaviorsish)?
A wet bed, licking penis/vulva, dribbling urine while walking
What behaviour is associated with polyuria?
positions itself in a micturition position - increased volume of urine is associated
What are the general components of micturition?
nerves and muscles
What nerves are involved with micturition?
Hypogastric, pelvic, and pudendal
What muscles are involved with micturition?
Detrusor, interrnal urethral sphincter, and external urethral sphincter
What are the two phases of micturition?
Filling and voiding
Filling is associated with parasympathetic/sympathetic control under the control of norepinephrine/acetylcholine.
Voiding is associated with parasympathetic/sympathetic control under the control of norepinephrine/acetylcholine.
What are the three broad mechanisms of urinary incontinence?
Failure of bladder to sufficiently accommodate urine
Abnormal anatomy of ureteral termination, urinary bladder or urethral development
Failure of sufficiently functional urethral closure
Define destrusor instability.
Involuntary bladder contractions at low bladder volumes
What populations should you consider that detrusor instability is the cause of incontinence?
Incontinent dogs refractory to standard therapy
ectopic ureter patients
How is detrusor instability treated?
Enhance bladder relaxation
How do you enhance bladder relaxation?
Anticholinergics (counter the pelvic nerve from contracting the bladder)- Oxybutinin and dicyclomine
What is/are ectopic ureters?
incorrect termination of one or both ureters
Where are ureters normally located?
Dorsolateral insertion with short tunneling prior to termination in trigone
What are the different forms of ectopic ureters? Define.
intramural - penetrates serosa at the correct spot but then tunnels and opens in a different spot of the bladder
extramural - open in urethral
Do males or females typically get ectopic ureters more commonly?
Females - they also present earlier
What are the breed predisposition for ectopic ureters?
Siberian Husky, labrador retriever, golden retriever, newfoundland, english bulldog, westies
True or False: Most cases of ectopic ureters are bilateral.
Is intramural or extramural ectopic ureters more common?
Where is the most common termination of ectopic ureters?
What abnormalities are associated with ectopic ureters?
UTIs, hydroureter, hydronephrosis/pyelectasia, and vestibulovaginal septal remnants
How are ectopic ureters diagnosed? What is the gold standard?
Cystoscopy - Gold standard
How are extramural ectopic ureters treated?
Neoureterocystostomy - reimplantation in correct location in the bladder