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Flashcards in Cardio - Hypertrophic CM Deck (35)
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1

What is HOCM?

Disease of the myocardial sarcomere caused by/characteristic of:

genetic mutations in MyBPC, dietary/environmental factors, impaired LV myocardial relaxation, and concentric hypertrophy

2

What cat breeds are prone to HOCM?

Maine Coons and Ragdolls

3

HOCM is a disease of _____ dysfunction.

diastolic

4

What do HOCM hearts look like?

Myofiber disarray, replacement fibrosis, arteriosclerosis (small vessel disease)

5

What does the O in HOCM stand for?

obstructive

6

Where is the obstruction in HOCM?

At area where blood leaves LV as it crosses the aorta

7

What role does the MV play in HOCM?

It is anatomically near the obstruction location, and can swing and get in the way of the outflow tract, contributing to HOCM

8

What is the signalment for HOCM?

Cats (Maine Coons, Ragdolls), males (75%), middle-age (~6 yr)

9

What is the prevalence of HOCM in cats?

15%

10

What is part of the breeder screening for HOCM?

Echo and genetic testing

11

What is part of the veterinarian screening for HOCM?

Murmur, arrhythmia, cardiac biomarkers (NT-proBNP)

12

What can HOCM be a complication of?

CHF, ATE

13

How is HOCM definitively diagnosed?

Echo

14

What are signs of HOCM seen on echo?

LV hypertrophy, LV diastolic function, +/- LA enlargement

15

What are DDx for LV hypertrophy in cats?

4H/4 "hypers"

HCM, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, hypersomatotropism (acromegaly)

16

How does hypertension cause LV hypertrophy?

Ventricle is working harder to pump blood out due to increased afterload

17

How can hyperthyroidism cause LV hypertrophy?

Thyroid hormone can directly cause hypertrophy --> hypertension

18

What causes a heart murmur in HOCM?

Dynamic LVOT obstruction +/- mild mitral regurg

19

What is easier to diagnose, HOCM or HCM? Why?

HOCM because most HCM cats don't have murmurs and HOCM cats do

20

What are DDx for murmurs in adult cats?

HOCM, hyperthyroidism/SHT, physiologic, anemia

21

What are the 3 complications of HOCM and which is most common?

L-CHF (most common), ATE, sudden cardiac death

22

What CS come with HOCM due to L-CHF?

Dyspnea, tachypnea, inappetance, ADR, hiding

23

What CS come with HOCM due to ATE?

acute paresis/pain, bilateral hindlimb > other

24

Where does fluid go in cats with L-CHF?

Pulmonary edema, pleural eff, pericardial eff

25

T/F: Most cats with HOCM are never diagnosed or treated

True

26

___% of cats who are diagnosed will progress and experience a complication.

50

27

What is the average survival in asymptomatic HOCM cats?

~5 years

28

What is the average survival of HOCM cats following an episode of CHF?

6 months - 2 years

29

What is the average survival of HOCM cats following an ATE?

3-6 months

30

What are negative prognostic indicators of HOCM?

Severe LA enlargement, severe LV hypertrophy, older age

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