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Flashcards in Infectious Dz - Antibiotic Review Deck (103)
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1

What do bacteriostatic antibiotics do?

They stop bacterial growth by interfering with protein synthesis and metabolism

2

What do bactericidal antibiotics do?

The kill bacteria by interfering with cell wall or nucleic acid synthesis

3

What antibiotics are bacteriostatic?

Chloramphenicol, sulfanomides, trimethoprim, clindamycin, doxycycline, and macrolides

4

What antibiotics are bactericidal?

Beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, Timethoprim sulfas (which is the combo of sulfanomides and trimethoprim), vancomycin, and metronidazole

5

When will the classification of an antibiotic (static or cidal) influence your choice of antibiotic?

If there are life-threatening infections or an immunocompromised individual

6

What is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)?

The lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that will inhibit bacterial growth

7

What factors does the in vitro value not take into account?

In vivo factors - Antibody in the serum, urine, and bile, pH of the infected environment, and presence of biofilms

8

What is efficacy of an antibiotic related to?

the amount of time that the antibiotic concentration is above the MIC

9

What maximizes efficacy of antibiotics?

Multiple daily doses, continuous administration, OR giving a single daily (high) dose

10

What antibiotics are time-dependent?

Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracyclines

11

What antibiotics are concentration dependent?

Fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and metronidazole

12

What four antibiotics/groups are part of the beta lactam structural group?

Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams

13

Are the beta lactams cidal or static? Time or concentration dependent?

Cidal and time-dependent

14

How do beta lactams work?

They block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting penicillin-binding proteins

15

How are beta lactams metabolized?

They are renally excreted - high concentrations in the urine

16

What forms of penicillin do we use in small animals?

Amoxicillin/ampicillin and Ticarcillin

17

What is the spectrum of activity of penicillins?

Excellent activity against Gram + and anaerobes
Some gram - efficacy
Not effective against Pseudomonas

18

What enzyme do gram - bacteria produce that inactivates beta-lactam antibiotics?

Beta lactamase

19

What can extend the efficacy of penicillins against beta lactamase inhibitors?

Clavulanic acid (Clavamox) and Sulbactam (Unasyn)

20

What generation of cephalosporins has the most activity against gram negative organisms?

4th generation - activity increases with the generation

21

What is the spectrum of cephalosporins?

Effective against Gram positives
Resistant to all Gram + beta-lactamases

22

What carbapenems are used in small animal medicine?

Imipenem and Meropenem

23

What 'effect' do carbapenems have that other beta-lactams don't have?

a post-antibiotic effect

24

What are Carbapenems effective against?

Gram negative and positive bacteria - there is little resistance as of now because these drugs are reserved for serious infections (the big guns)

25

How are Carbapenems formulated?

In IV and SQ routes because there is poor oral absorption

26

Uses of Carbapenems should be limited to what?

Serious multi-drug resistant gram - infections and in immunocompromised individuals

27

What glycopeptide do we use in small animal medicine?

Vancomycin

28

Is Vancomycin static or cidal? Time or concentration dependent?

Cidal and time-dependent

29

How do glycopeptides work?

They inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding amino acids used in its synthesis

30

How are glycopeptides formulated?

IV due to poor oral absorption

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