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Flashcards in Gastro - Diarrhea Deck (47)
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1

What is diarrhea?

increased frequency, volume, or fluidity of feces

2

What is melena?

dark, tarry feces

3

What is flatulence?

excess gas

4

What is dyschezia?

difficult or painful defecation

5

What is hematochezia?

fresh blood in stool

6

What is tenesmus?

ineffectual straining

7

When does something go from acute to chronic?

if it has been over 3 weeks

8

Differentiate between small and large bowel diarrhea.

Small bowel diarrhea will have a large volume, weight loss, vomiting, and poor general condition associated with it

Large bowel diarrhea has less volume than small, it has mucus present, increased frequency, tenesmus, some dyschezia, weight loss, and vomiting

9

What type of diarrhea is this?

large bowel

10

What type of diarrhea is this?

small bowel

11

What type of diarrhea is this?

small bowel - note the melena

12

What type of diarrhea is this?

small bowel - large volume

13

What are the differential diagnoses for small intestinal diarrhea if there are no systemic signs?

Diet, helminths, Giardia, and iatrogenic

14

What are the differential diagnoses for small intestinal diarrhea if there are systemic signs?

Bacterial infection, viral infection, toxins/medications, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, acute pancreatitis, foreign body obstruction, intussusception

15

What bacterial agents can cause acute small intestinal diarrhea with systemic signs?

Salmonella and campylobacter

16

What viral agents can cause acute small intestinal diarrhea with systemic signs?

Distemper, parvovirus, and panleukopenia

17

What diagnostic test do you want to do to confirm bacterial infection as the cause of acute small intestinal diarrhea with systemic signs?

fecal culture

18

What diagnostic test do you want to do to confirm viral infection as the cause of acute small intestinal diarrhea with systemic signs?

fecal antigen test

19

What are the differential diagnoses for acute large intestinal diarrhea?

Whipworms, Clostridia, Giardia, and Campylobacter

20

What diagnostic tests should you do to confirm the cause of acute large intestinal diarrhea?

fecal examination for parasites, culture

21

What are the differential diagnoses for extra-GI chronic small intestinal diarrhea?

Metabolic - hepatic disease, hyperthyroidism, Addison's disease, renal insufficiency

Pancreatic - exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis

22

What are the differential diagnosis for GI caused chronic small intestinal diarrhea?

Giardia infection, chronic partial obstruction, lymphangiectasia, lymphoma, food-responsive disease, inflammatory bowel disease

23

What are the differential diagnosis for chronic large intestinal diarrhea?

Inflammatory bowel disease, polyps, food-responsive disease, neoplasia, chronic partial obstruction, and tritrichomonas foetus in cats

24

What diagnostics should be done when investigating the cause of chronic diarrhea?

Fecal examination, blood work, UA, ultrasound, if no response to elimination diets then endoscopy

25

What tests should you consider if the diarrhea is of small intestinal origin?

Trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI), pancreatic lipase (PLI), cobalamin, and folate tests

26

What are the benefits to doing endoscopic guided biopsies?

They are non-invasive except of anesthesia, direct visualization of mucosa is possible, and it gives diagnosis in a majority of cases

27

What makes endoscopies difficult?

Intestinal lymphoma and lymphangiectasia

28

When do you want to caution doing exploratory laparotomy?

In sick animals, cats, and animals with decreased albumin levels

29

Why are exploratory laparotomies not recommended?

It only yields 2-3 biopsies from the stomach and small intestine, not for colonic biopsies They are more expensive and painful for the animal 20% mortality vs. 2% mortality for endoscopy

30

What are the main causes for chronic small intestinal diarrhea in the dog?

Food-responsive disease and Inflammatory bowel disease being the most common followed by antibiotic-responsive diarrhea and neoplasia

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