Neuro - Neuroanatomic Diagnosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro - Neuroanatomic Diagnosis Deck (22)
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1

What are the different divisions where lesions could be localized?

Supratentorial, infratentorial, C1-C5, C6-T2, T3-L3, L4-S1-3, Caudal, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, muscle

2

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion located in the supratentorial region?

changes in mentation, abnormal vision, seizures, proprioceptive abnormalities in limbs, head turn, and circling

3

If there is a unilateral supratentorial lesion, what side of the body will the effects be seen on?

the contralateral side

4

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion located in the infratentorial region?

changes in mentation, cranial nerve abnormalities (3-12), proprioceptive abnormalities in the limbs, respiratory abnormalities

5

A head tilt, whether it be vestibular or cerebellar, is usually towards or away from the lesion?

towards the side of the lesion

6

If there is a head tilt with proprioceptive deficits, the lesion is most likely localized where?

on the side with the proprioceptive defects

7

If there is peripheral vestibular disease, where is the lesion?

within the middle or inner ear

8

If there is central vestibular disease, where is the lesion located?

In the information centers or the brain stem structures

9

What clinical findings are associated with peripheral vestibular disease?

falling, incoordination, head tilt, nystagmus, vomiting, and possible strabismus

10

What will the nystagmus be like in animals with peripheral vestibular disease?

horizontal or rotatory

11

What clinical findings are associated with central vestibular disease?

falling, incoordination, head tilt, nystagmus, conscious proprioceptive deficits

12

What will the nystagmus be like in animals with central vestibular disease?

horizontal or rotatory or vertical

13

What clinical findings are associated with a cerebellar lesion?

Falling, incoordination (ataxia), +/- hypermetria, intention tremor (bouncing), normal conscious proprioception, and absence of menace with normal vision

14

What is hypermetria?

overshoot/overexaggerating a intended motion

15

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion in the C1-C5 segment?

All 4 limbs affected typically (could only be one-three), reflexes in all limbs normal to increased, possible Horner's syndrome

16

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion at the C6-T2 segment?

All 4 limbs affected typically (could be only one-three), reflexes in pelvic limbs normal to increased, reflexes/tone in thoracic limbs decreased to absent, +/- Horner's syndrome

17

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion at the T3-L3 segment?

Pelvic limbs affected, reflexes in pelvic limbs normal to increased, reflexes in thoracic limbs are normal, +/- abnormalities of the cutaneous trunci reflex, UMN bladder

18

What does UMN bladder mean?

large, firm, and difficult to express

19

What clinical findings are associated with a lesion at the L4-S1-3 segment?

pelvic limbs affected, reflexes in pelvic limbs decreased or absent, reflexes in thoracic limbs are normal, LMN bladder

20

What does LMN bladder mean?

large, flaccid, and easy to express

21

What clinical findings are associated with peripheral nerve, muscular junction, or muscular lesion (focal)?

Voluntary movement abnormalities, postural abnormalities, and decreased to absent reflexes/tone

22

What clinical findings are associated with diffuse peripheral nerve/NMJ/muscle lesions?

all four limbs - diffuse decreased to absent reflexes and diffuse decreased to absent tone

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