Gastro - Vomiting and Regurgitation Flashcards Preview

Small Animal Medicine > Gastro - Vomiting and Regurgitation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastro - Vomiting and Regurgitation Deck (64)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the three most common causes of esophageal disease?

Esophagitis, esophageal foreign body, and mega-esophagus

2

What anatomic abnormalities lead to esophageal disease?

Vascular ring anomaly, cricopharyngeal disease, hiatal hernia, and diverticulum

3

What type of obstructions lead to esophageal disease?

Mural, luminal, or extraluminal obstruction

4

What can cause esophagitis?

trauma, foreign bodies, reflux (anesthesia), and irritation

5

What motility disorders lead to esophageal disease?

megaesophagous, neuropathy, and myopathy

6

Esophageal disorders are characterized by what?

Failure of transport and/or reflux

7

What are some clinical signs of regurgitation?

Hypersalivation, odynophagia, anorexia, dysphagia, nasal discharge, and coughing

8

Vomiting and regurgitation are two very different processes but often get confused. Describe vomiting.

Vomiting is an abdominal effort, there is prodromal nausea, usually digested food, no swallowing pain

9

Vomiting and regurgitation are two very different processes but often get confused. Describe regurgitation.

Passive event, no prodromal nausea, undigested food, possibly painful

10

What are the 'right' questions to ask in regards to vomiting or regurgitation?

Is there abdominal effort? Is it digested food that is brought up? What is the relation to eating? Are there swallowing difficulties? Pain on eating?

11

What should be done during physical examination when you are trying to determine the cause of vomiting and/or regurgitation?

Esophageal palpation, lung asucultation, determine underlying or concurrent disease, and determine body condition

12

What diagnostic tests are important for esophageal disease diagnosis?

Hematology and biochemistry, diagnostic imaging and endoscopy

13

What are the common causes for mega-esophagus?

Idiopathic megaesophagus, myasthenia gravis, thymoma, and hypoadrenocorticism

14

What are the rare causes of mega-esophagus?

Polyneuritis, polymyositis, dysautonomia, CNS disease, botulism/tetanus, systemic lupus erythematosus, lead/thallium toxicity, and hypothyroidism

15

Why is aspiration pneumonia a common complication of regurgitation?

Because regurgitation is not associated with reflex closure of the larynx leaving the airway unprotected

16

What chemical irritants can cause esophagitis?

corrosive agents and medications like doxycycline

17

Gastroesophageal reflux can lead to esophagitis. What can cause gastroesophageal reflux?

general anesthesia, hiatal hernia, persistent vomiting, and poorly positioned feeding tubes

18

How is esophagitis treated?

Dietary modifications, sucralfate liquid, and inhibit gastric acid secretion

19

What dietary modifications need to be made for treatment of esophagitis?

small meals, high protein-low fat food to minimize reflux +/- a gastric feeding tube

20

What gastric acid secretion inhibitors are most useful in cases of esophagitis?

proton pump inhibitors - omeprazole

21

What is a possible, serious complication, of esophagitis treatment?

strictures

22

Where do esophageal foreign bodies like to lodge themselves?

At the thoracic inlet, heart base, or hiatus

23

How are esophageal foreign bodies treated?

endoscopic retrieval or push into the stomach

24

Are esophageal foreign bodies considered emergencies?

yes - there is a potential for mucosal damage/perforation

25

What three pathophysiologic things can induce vomiting?

the chemoreceptor trigger zone, vagal and sympathetic afferents in the stomach acting on the brainstem, and the cortex acting on the brainstem

26

What can act on the chemoreceptor trigger zone to cause vomiting?

drugs, toxins, uremia, infections, and motion sickness

27

What are some primary acute causes of (GI) vomiting?

Dietary, infection, obstruction, and motility disorders/gastric volvulus

28

What are some primary chronic causes of vomiting?

Inflammatory disease and neoplasia

29

What primary causes of vomiting are the most common?

Dietary, infection (parasites), inflammatory disease, obstruction (foreign body)

30

What are the secondary causes of vomiting?

Uremia, Addison's disease, hepatic disease, pancreatitis, toxin ingestion, and drugs

Decks in Small Animal Medicine Class (100):