Renal - Urinary Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal - Urinary Tract Infections Deck (74)
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1

What is a urinary tract infection?

Persistent colonization of any point of the urinary tract (except for the distal portion) by microorganisms

2

What usually is the origin of UTIs?

Migration (ascending) enteric bacteria from the lower urinary tract

3

What makes up the upper urinary tract?

Kidneys and ureters

4

What makes up the lower urinary tract?

The bladder and urethra

5

What part of the urinary tract is not sterile?

The distal urethra/prepuce

6

What is the normal flora of the male dog urinary tract?

Mixed population (Gram +/-, aerobic/anaerobic)

7

What is the normal flora of the male cat urinary tract?

Mixed population (gram +/-), mostly aerobic, some anerobic - Pasterurellaceae, E. coli, and Staph/strep

8

What is the normal flora of the female dog urinary tract?

Mixed population (Gram +/-, aerobic/anaerobic)

9

What is the normal flora of the female cat urinary tract?

Almost exclusively aerobic

10

What is bacterial cystitis?

bacterial infection of the bladder

11

What is bacterial pyelonephritis?

Bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and kidney

12

What is small volumes of urine known as?

pollakiuria

13

What sex are UTIs most common in?

females

14

Are dogs or cats more likely to get UTIs?

Dogs - up to 14% of dogs will have a UTI in their lifetime

15

Less than _____ of cats with lower urinary tract signs have UTIs.

Less than 10%

16

What percentage of cats below the age of 10 with urinary tract signs have UTIs?

less than 2 %

17

What percentage of cats above the age of 10 with urinary tract signs have UTIs?

10-20 % of cats

18

What are the lower urinary tract signs?

Pollakiuria, dysuria, and hematuria

19

Lower urinary tract signs are associated with what urinary disease process?

cystitis

20

Pyelonephritis is associated with ________ signs +/- lower urinary tract signs.

systemic signs

21

What systemic signs are associated with pyelonephritis?

fever, depression, vomiting, renal pain, and PU/PD

22

True or False: Subclinical bacteriuria is associated with no symptoms.

TRUE

23

How are subclinical bacteriuria infections found?

Bacteria are identified on routine urine cultures with no lower urinary tract signs

24

Subclinical bacteriuria is higher in patients with comorbidities. What comorbidities is it associated with?

Diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease, acute intervertebral disk disease, and chronic immunosuppression

25

What are the most common orgamisms associated with subclinical bacteriuria?

E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis

26

What CBC/Serum chemistry signs are associated with pyelonephritis?

neutrophilic leukocytosis, azotemia, and hyperphosphatemia

27

What will you see on urinalysis in patients with urinary tract infections?

Increased pH with urease producing bacteria, pyuria WBC presence, hematuria, proteinuria, bacteriuria, and granular/cellular casts (pyelonephritis)

28

What is the gold standard diagnosis for urinary tract infections?

urine culture

29

What sample should be used for urine culture?

sterile urine sample - cystocentesis

30

Does urine culture confirm the location of a urinary tract infection?

no

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