What is structural heart disease?
Abnormalities in heart valves and heart muscle
What is functional heart disease?
Systolic or diastolic dysfunction
What is vascular disease?
Systemic or pulmonary vascular abnormalities
What are rhythm disturbances?
Irregular, fast, or slow arrhtyhmias
What are the 2 general causes of structural heart disease?
Pressure overload and volume overload
What are the 2 general causes of functional heart disease?
Systolic and diastolic dysfunction
What are some types of congenital diseases that cause pressure overload?
pulmonic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, R to L shunting lesions (reversed PDA)
What are some types of acquired diseases that cause pressure overload?
Systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, HWD (pulm HT)
What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause volume overload?
Mitral and tricuspid valve dysplasia, L to R shunting lesions (PDA, ASD, VSD)
What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause volume overload?
Degenerative valve disease, endocarditis, chronic bradyarrhythmias
What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause systolic dysfunction?
There are none :)
What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause systolic dysfunction?
DCM, ARVC, myocarditis, infiltrative neoplasia, hypothyroidism, sustained tachyarrhythmias, end-stage volume overload disease
What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause diastolic dysfunction?
Peritoneal pericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPHD)
What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause diastolic dysfunction?
HCM, pericardial disease, neoplasia
What are pressure overload diseases?
Those that require the heart to generate greater than normal ventricular pressures to eject blood
What are volume overload diseases?
Those that result in a higher than normal end diastolic volume in the ventricle
What are systolic dysfunction diseases?
Those that result in reduced pumping function of the heart (low SV and CO)
What are diastolic dysfunction diseases?
Those that result in reduced relaxation function of the heart
What are the 4 complications of heart disease?
Poor perfusion, CHF, arrhythmias, thromboembolic disease (cats)
What are the 6 rules of the heart?
- Two circulations are arranged in series
- The heart is a muscle
- The heart's response to disease is predictable
- The heart has 3 functions
- Blood is lazy
- BP = CO x VR
What is the flow of the R heart?
vena cavae --> RA --> RV --> PA --> lungs
What is the flow of the L heart?
Lungs --> PV --> LA --> LV --> aorta --> systemic circulation
What is coronary circulation?
Supply of blood to the heart itself (myocytes) by the coronary arteries
What is hypertrophy?
When muscle cells have gotten bigger
Pressure overload disease results in _____ hypertrophy.
Volume overload disease leads to _____ hypertrophy
Why does eccentric hypertrophy cause the heart walls to appear normal in thickness?
The wall should technically be thinner because of increased volume (think of a filled latex balloon), but since the cells are hypertrophied they appear normal
What are the 3 functions of the heart?
Conduction, diastole, systole
What happens during conduction?
Conduction of electricity
What happens during diastole?