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Flashcards in Cardio - Intro Deck (34)
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1

What is structural heart disease?

Abnormalities in heart valves and heart muscle

2

What is functional heart disease?

Systolic or diastolic dysfunction

3

What is vascular disease?

Systemic or pulmonary vascular abnormalities

4

What are rhythm disturbances?

Irregular, fast, or slow arrhtyhmias

5

What are the 2 general causes of structural heart disease?

Pressure overload and volume overload

6

What are the 2 general causes of functional heart disease?

Systolic and diastolic dysfunction

7

What are some types of congenital diseases that cause pressure overload?

pulmonic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, R to L shunting lesions (reversed PDA)

8

What are some types of acquired diseases that cause pressure overload?

Systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, HWD (pulm HT)

9

What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause volume overload?

Mitral and tricuspid valve dysplasia, L to R shunting lesions (PDA, ASD, VSD)

10

What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause volume overload?

Degenerative valve disease, endocarditis, chronic bradyarrhythmias

11

What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause systolic dysfunction?

There are none :)

12

What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause systolic dysfunction?

DCM, ARVC, myocarditis, infiltrative neoplasia, hypothyroidism, sustained tachyarrhythmias, end-stage volume overload disease

13

What are some examples of congenital diseases that cause diastolic dysfunction?

Peritoneal pericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPHD)

14

What are some examples of acquired diseases that cause diastolic dysfunction?

HCM, pericardial disease, neoplasia

15

What are pressure overload diseases?

Those that require the heart to generate greater than normal ventricular pressures to eject blood

16

What are volume overload diseases?

Those that result in a higher than normal end diastolic volume in the ventricle

17

What are systolic dysfunction diseases?

Those that result in reduced pumping function of the heart (low SV and CO)

18

What are diastolic dysfunction diseases?

Those that result in reduced relaxation function of the heart

19

What are the 4 complications of heart disease?

Poor perfusion, CHF, arrhythmias, thromboembolic disease (cats)

20

What are the 6 rules of the heart?

  1. Two circulations are arranged in series
  2. The heart is a muscle
  3. The heart's response to disease is predictable
  4. The heart has 3 functions
  5. Blood is lazy
  6. BP = CO x VR

21

What is the flow of the R heart?

vena cavae --> RA --> RV --> PA --> lungs

22

What is the flow of the L heart?

Lungs --> PV --> LA --> LV --> aorta --> systemic circulation

23

What is coronary circulation?

Supply of blood to the heart itself (myocytes) by the coronary arteries

24

What is hypertrophy?

When muscle cells have gotten bigger

25

Pressure overload disease results in _____ hypertrophy.

concentric

26

Volume overload disease leads to _____ hypertrophy

Eccentric

27

Why does eccentric hypertrophy cause the heart walls to appear normal in thickness?

The wall should technically be thinner because of increased volume (think of a filled latex balloon), but since the cells are hypertrophied they appear normal 

28

What are the 3 functions of the heart?

Conduction, diastole, systole

29

What happens during conduction?

Conduction of electricity

30

What happens during diastole?

Ventricles relax

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