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Flashcards in 6 social development Deck (41)
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1

what did russias traditional land based society move towards as industrialisation spread

one more focused on money, capital and wages

2

landed elite

small but diverse group, mostly of noble status

3

why did landed elites personal landholdings decline after emancipation edict

some sold out to pay off debts and others abandoned farming in favour of more rewarding professional activities

4

what percentage of university professors came from hereditry nobilirt in 1880

nearly 1/5

5

how many nobles owned their own business in Moscow by 1882

700

6

how many nobles employed in transport, commerce and industry

2500

7

why did Russia's middle class begin to grow

urban and industrial expansion and an increase in educational opportunities

8

what professions were in greater demand

bankers, doctors, teachers and administrators

9

what did government contracts to build railways and state loans to set up factories provide

tremendous opportunities for those who were enterprising

10

what opportunities were there at the lower end of the scale

more opportunities to take up management positions or set up as workshop owners and traders

11

what was the expansion of industry accompanied by

a growth in the urban population

12

how small was the number of urban workers in this period

no more than 2% population

13

what was it very common for peasants to do

move to the towns to work temporarily whist returning to their villages to help in busy times, such as harvest

14

why did some peasants sell up and leave the countryside

to either join a migrant group building railways or to become urban workers

15

what percentage of inhabitants in st Petersburg in 1864 were peasants by birth

1/3

16

what were condiditons in the cities like

grim- the early factories paid little heed to their workers welfare

17

what did the reforms in 1882-90 state

-regulation of child labour
-reduction in working hours
-reduction in excessive fines and payment in kind
-appointment of inspectors with powers to check up on working and living conditions

18

how effective were the reforms

contributed very little towards improving the lives of the growing working class

19

what were peasants attracted to the towns by

prospect of regular wages- rarely generous payments

20

how many strikes between 1886-1894

33 per year

21

how were the peasants divided

kulaks at the top

22

how did kulaks buy up land

perhaps with aid of loans from peasants land bank

23

what was life like for the poorest peasants

-getting harsher
-turned into landless labourers
-1880 2/3 former serfs in Tambov region unable to feed household without falling into debt

24

which area of peasants tended to be better off

areas of former state peasants tended to be better off than those of emancipated privately owned serfs

25

why were former state owned peasants better off

been granted more land

26

what was the average life expectancy for male and female peasants

-27 M
-29 W
-England: average 45

27

what effect did economic change have on the peasantry

failed to improve the lot of the peasantry, may have affected them for the worse

28

what percentage of the population subscribed to the orthodox church

70%

29

what was Russia seen as, owing to tradition

Holy Land that had been chosen by god to save the world

tsar possessed a holiness which made him a saint on earth

30

what had happened to church administration by late 19th century and effect on tsars position

church admin moved to holy synod and tsars position became more secular