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Flashcards in 6: Post War Economic Issues BRT Deck (72)
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1

Britain’s wartime economy: why was the former emphasis on ‘laissez fairs’ moved away from

The size of the war effort required state intervention

2

Britain’s wartime economy: why did size of war effort require state intervention

-increase in production of weapons
-had to supply vast quantities of war materials to its allies
-huge demands for transport

3

Britain’s wartime economy: what effect did the huge demand posed by the war have on the economy

Pushed up prices and created shortages of materials and workers in 1914

4

Britain’s wartime economy: why did the state begin commandeering stocks of vital war materials and fixing prices

Private industry couldn’t cope on its own

5

Britain’s wartime economy: what did LG persuade parliament to grant in 1915

More state powers over industry by extending DORA

6

Britain’s wartime economy: what did the ministry of munitions do

-set up central purchasing system for buying essential war materials
-organised British achieve to help war effort
-encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to war production
-built own national factories

7

Britain’s wartime economy: which industries came under state control

Key industries such as railways, docks and coal mines

8

Britain’s wartime economy: what were women encouraged to do

Enter jobs previously done by men

9

Britain’s wartime economy: what did ministry of munitions CONTROL

Prices wages and profits

Rationed essential foods

Bought 90% of all imported

Had charge of transport and fuel

10

Britain’s wartime economy: how did the state alter the clocks

By introducing British Summer Time

11

Britain’s wartime economy: what did the state reduce the strength of

Alcoholic drinks

12

Britain’s wartime economy: what did state limit opening hours for

Public houses

13

Britain’s wartime economy: why was a department of food production set up

-to increase amount of home grown foodstuffs

14

Britain’s wartime economy: how did government encourage food production

-subsidised farmers to plough up wasteland
-allocated scarce fertilisers
-prisoners of war to work on land
-encouraged women to volunteer for farm work

15

Paying for the war: gov spending increase 1913 to 1918

1913: £200 million
1918: £2600 million

16

Paying for the war: what were governments traditionally meant to do

Balance the budget

17

Paying for the war: what did gov have to do instead of balancing the budget

Had to borrow money from it’s own people and from neutral countries (particularly USA)

18

Paying for the war: what did gov have to do as well as borrowing

Increase taxation

19

Economic impact of war on workers: what were workers hit by as well as increased taxation

Rise in cost of living

Food prices rose by 10% in first month of war and continued to rise

20

Economic impact of war on workers: what did workers benefit from there being

More work

21

Economic impact of war on workers: pre war unemployed or casual part time workers position during war

Working full time

22

Economic impact of war on workers: how did unskilled workers benefit from war

Had real bargaining power because of labour shortages and consequently earned more

23

Economic impact of war on workers: how did those already in war increase their earnings

They were able to do more overtime

24

Economic impact of war on workers: how were better living standards evident for poorest in working class

Fall in poor relief applications and lower working class morality

25

Economic impact of war on workers: how were middle and upper classes more disadvantaged by war

Higher income tax rates and taxes on land

Many landed estates had to be sold off

26

Economic impact of war on workers: what percentage of landed estates had to be sold off in England 1917-1921

25%

27

Housing and austerity: what were working class homes like before the war

-already over crowded
-most lacked basic facilities
-joined up terraced houses

28

Housing and austerity: how did all resources being focused on war worsen housing situation

Me house building and even major repairs generally halted

29

Housing and austerity: what happened as a result of increased demand for munition workers

More people came into already overcrowded industrial towns

30

Housing and austerity: what caused landlords to increase rents

Increased demand combined with no increase in the supply of houses