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which factors indicated that Britain was on verge of civil war by 1914

-constitutional crisis
-female suffrage
-industrial unrest


who did 1909-11 see a serious clash between

conservative dominated H/L and liberal dominated H/C


what was the first constitutional crisis 1909-10 over

peoples budget


what was the second constitutional crisis 1910-11 over

parliament act


why did Lloyd georges budget raise anger of conservatives

feared ideas of redistributive taxations and of progressive taxation- saw as an attack on rich


when did H/L veto the peoples budget

November 1909


what was broken when the HL vetoed the peoples budget

the convention that the lords shouldn't interfere with money bills


what did the veto of the peoples budget leave the liberals with

no legal authority to collect taxes

had no choice but to call an election jan 1910 on issue


what issue did the liberals try to fight the 1910 election on

whether Britain should be governed by a majority of elected MPs (hC) or by non-elected, hereditary peers (HL)

peers vs the people


how did the conservatives fight their corner in 1910 election

suggested there were other ways to raise money- taxes on foreign imports

duty HL to restrain gov from making sweeping changes that electorate hadn't voted on


what was the result of the 1910 election

liberals won only very narrowly


who were liberals relying on to pass the budget

irish nationalists


what were nationalists prepared to give their support in return for

an attack on powers of hl


why were irish nationalists keen to see the lords weakened

so they could achieve their desire for home rule in ireland


why did lords finally agree to pass the budget

commons able to show a majority for budget and an election


how did liberal bill of 1910 plan to curb the power of the lords

taking away its power to veto


what did the 1910 parliament bill propose

-HL have no power to amend/reject bills that speaker of commons certified to be true money bills
-HL have no power to reject other legislation but could delay it for up to 2 years- suspensory veto
-max period between general elections reduced from 7-5 years


what was the problem with the parliament bill

it would have to pass the lords to become law


what was asquith solution to the issue of the parliament bill passing the lords

to ask king Edward to promise to create enough liberal peers to outvote the conservative peers in HL


who was king George replaced by and why

he died suddenly may 1910
replaced by George V


what was George V solution

tried to get liberals and conservatives to agree to a solution without resorting to creation of new peers


what did the conservatives offer in the second constitutional crisis

offered to reform composition of HL but liberals were determined to reduce its constitutional powers


what issue did the consitutinal conference break down over

conservatives tried to insist lords should have right to veto any change in constitution unless electorate approved such change in a referndum


under what condition did king George finally agree to create liberal peers

if the liberals won a second general election in December 1910


who could liberals rely on to win general election December 1910

support of labour and irish nationalists


when did commons pass the parliament bill

may 1911


how did house of lords feel about parliament bill

there were sharp divisions within the house as to whether to cooperate with the bill/oppose it


what did the lords avoid by passing the parliament bill

having HL swamped by newly-created liberal peers


impact of constitutional crisis on the lords

could only delay legislation important to the commons


impact of constitutional crisis on the liberals

able to move forwards with their legislative programme of reform