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1

what was industrialisation in Russia largely driven by

the state

2

why was industrialisation largely driven by the state

in a deliberate attempt to match the economic development of western europe

3

who was AII minister of finance 1862-78

von Reutern

4

what were reuterns reforms designed for

to boost the economy and provide funds to drive industrial growth

5

reuterns reforms

-treasury reformed
-new arrangements for collecting taxes put in place
-tax farming abolished
-tax system reformed
-banks and credit facilities extended
-state, municipal and savings banks established

6

how was trade promoted under reutern

reduction of import duties 1863

7

what were offered to private entrepreneurs to develop railways under reutern

government subsidies

8

how was foreign investment encouraged under reutern

government guaranteed annual dividend

9

for what industries was government support offered under reutern

cotton and mining

10

what did reuterns reforms force tax farmers to do

look elsewhere to invest

11

how did reuterns reforms encourage enterprise

opportunities provided by gov subsidies and trade treaties

12

what did the use of foreign technical expertise and capital support under reutern

industrial expansion (railway saw expansion)

13

what was the annual growth rate during reuterns term of office

6%

14

what were the new developments under reutern

oil extraction, ironworks

15

how did economy remain weak despite reuterns reforms

-1/3 gov expenditure went on repayment of debts
-rouble subject to variation
-limitations of emancipation edict kept peasantry poor and domestic market small
-tariff reductions meant decline in gov revenue

16

when was the decision to raise tariffs taken

1878

17

when did Vyshnegradsky take over as minister of finance

1887

18

what was the import tariff designed to boost under Vyshnegradsky

home production and helped iron industry and development of industrial machinery

19

how did Vyshnegradsky balance budget whilst financing enterprise

-negotiated valuable loans
-increased indirect taxes
-mounted a drive to swell grain exports

20

how did Vyshnegradsky policy appear successful on surface

1881-1891 grain exports +18% and Russian budget in surplus

21

what was Vyshnegradsky export drive achieve at expense of

peasants who paid taxes and saw their grain requisitioned by state

22

what did Vyshnegradsky famously say about exports

'we ourselves shall not eat, but we shall export'

23

what did Vyshnegradsky export drive ultimately lead to

widespread famine due to bad harvest and no reserve stores

24

who was Vyshnegradsky successor

Witte

25

what was Witte totally committed to

economic modernisation as a means of curbing revolutionary activity

26

what did Witte believe was only way forward

continue with protective tariffs, heavy taxation and forced exports to generate capital

27

what did much of Wittes investment go into

mining, metal trades, oil and banking

28

who did Witte encourage to oversee industrial developments

foreign engineers to advise on planning and techniques

29

what industry saw major expansion under Witte

railway

30

how much land did the average peasant receive

little less than four hectares