22: Khrushchev years part 2- economic and social developments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22: Khrushchev years part 2- economic and social developments Deck (111)
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1

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: how much of the USSRs industrial capacity had been destroyed by ww2

70%

2

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: what effect did ww2 have on the ussrs workforce

severely reduced it

3

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: why did the USSR face a huge defence budget

as it policed its new satellite states and met the costs of the emerging cold war

4

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: what did stalin refuse to allow territories under soviet influence to receive in 1947

US marshall aid

5

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: why did stalin establish cominform

to counter western propaganda

6

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: why did stalin establish comecom

to link the eastern European countries that formed the soviet bloc economically

7

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: why did the redistribution of industry in the war years provide a broad base for industrial recovery

expanded eastern industrial areas permitted exploitation of new sources of raw materials and energy

8

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: what was essential to rebuild

the devastated western areas

9

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: what did gosplan coordinate to meet soviet needs

two more 5yp following the same target setting methods that had been used before the war

10

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: fourth 5yp

1946-50

11

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: aims of fourth 5yp

-catch up with USA
-rebuild heavy industry and transport
-revive Ukraine

12

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: detail of 4th 5yp

-use of extensive reparations from East Germany
-maintenance of wartime controls on labour force- long hours, low wages etc
-'grand projects'- canals and HEP plants

13

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: results 4th 5yp

-USSR became second to USA in industrial capacity
-most targets in heavy industry met
-prod doubled and urban workforce increased
-by end 1947, Dnieper Dam power station in action again
-industrially stronger than pre war

14

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: 5th 5yp

1951-55

15

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: aims 5th 5yp

-continuation of development of heavy industry and transport
-post 1953, under Malenkov, consumer goods, housing and services received stronger investment

16

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: detail 5th 5yp

-continuation 4th 5yp but resources diverted to rearmament during Korean war
-after stalins death, Malenkov reduced expenditure of military and heavy industry

17

industrial development under stalin 1945-53: results

-most growth targets met
-national income increased 71%
-Malenkov's changes met opposition resulting in hi loss of leadership 1955

18

industrial development under Khrushchev 1953-64: which issues were one of most hotly debated areas during leadership struggle after 1953

economic issues

19

industrial development under Khrushchev 1953-64: which Malenkov proposal did Khrushchev initially oppose

to move the economic focus away from heavy industry to light industry

20

industrial development under Khrushchev 1953-64: what effect did the industrial changes that K introduced when in power have

went some way to changing rigid Stalinist planning system that he inherited and also took steps towards developing new industrial areas

21

decentralisation and industrial planning: issues with Stalinist system: ministers in moscow

set different industrial targets for each enterprise

22

decentralisation and industrial planning: issues with Stalinist system: administrators

too few to make the system work properly

23

decentralisation and industrial planning: issues with Stalinist system: exceeding targets

-enterprises judged and given bonuses according to success in fulfilling output targets
-exceeding targets would mean targets raised next year
-managers preferred to play safe, hide productive capacity of their enterprises and avoid too much innovation and improvement

24

decentralisation and industrial planning: issues with Stalinist system: disincentive to modernisation

-output targets assessed usually by weight
-heavy goods favoured over lighter ones
-regardless of what consumers wanted

25

decentralisation and industrial planning: issues with Stalinist system: why were increasing amounts of capital investment needed to even stand still

resources not being efficiently used

26

decentralisation and industrial planning: when was the 6th 5yp introduced

1956

27

decentralisation and industrial planning: why was the 6th 5yp abandoned after 2 years

its targets were over optimistic

28

decentralisation and industrial planning: what took place in 1957 related to ministries

60 Moscow ministries abolished

29

decentralisation and industrial planning: what took place in 1957 division of USSR

USSR divided into 105 economic regions each with own economic council (sovnarkoz) to plan and supervise economic affairs

30

decentralisation and industrial planning: what ulterior political motive did the reforms in 1957 have

removed Malenkov's men and extended Khrushchev's patronage network in the localities