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1

how many serfs did AII emancipate in 1861

51 million

2

what has his decision to emancipate been hailed as

the product of the tsars own liberal and humanitarian ideas

3

what was the emancipation followed by

reforms in other areas such as the army, local gov, judiciary

4

what has the series of reforms led to

him being given name 'Tsar Liberator'

5

what does Emmons refer to emancipation edict as

piece of state directed manipulation of society aimed to strengthen social and political stability rather than product of liberal thinking

6

what does Emmons state reforms were intended for

maintaining tsarist authority

7

what does Emmons interpretation suggest

it backfired and created division between gov and landed gentry

8

what could AII views on serfdom have been shaped by

-romantic tutor- Zhukovsky
-travels around empire
-party of st Petersburg progress

9

which other family members had been committed to abolition of serfdom for sometime

GD Konstantin (Brother)
GD Elena (AUNT)

10

what were alexanders natural tendencies

conservative rather than liberal

11

what alarmed AII and convinced him that change needed to occur

increase in peasant uprisings since 1840s

12

what were the main catalyst for action

humiliations an efficiencies of Crimean war

13

who pleaded for reform in order to 'strengthen the state and restore dignity'

Dmitry Milyutin

14

what did Dimtry Milyutin believe about the army

needed modernising and only a free population would provide labour needed for military improvement

15

what was AII like in conserving autocracy

determined to maintain autocracy and uphold god given duties but felt pressure for reform

16

how did AII begin his reign

releasing political prisoners and pardoning decemberists

17

who were decemberists

group involved in plot to assassinate his father

18

what did AII relax at start of his reign

controls on censorship, restrictions on foreign travel and uni entrance

19

what did AII ask nobles for in March 1856

asked them to produce suggestions for an emancipation measure

20

how did AII try and win noble support for emancipation

toured countryside giving pro emancipation speeches

21

who did emancipation edict initially apply to

privately owned serfs

22

when did state serfs receive freedom

1866

23

what did emancipation edict grant

serfs freedom and an allotment of land

24

what did landowners receive under emancipation edict

government compensation

25

what were freed serfs required to pay

redemption payments to the government over 49 years

26

where did the serfs have to stay until redemption payments were made

within the mir/peasant commune

27

what was the mir made responsible for

distributing allotments, controlling farming and collecting and paying peasants taxes

28

what were volosts established for

to supervise the mirs

29

what were volosts

peasant communities consisting of several villages/hamlets

30

from when did the volosts run their own courts

1863