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1

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what swelled the urban population in russias major cities

arrival of new large factories, growing numbers of smaller workshops

2

developments in working and living conditions in towns: how many factory workers 1900 and 1913

2 million- 6 million 1913

3

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why did the empires urban poplation quadruple between 1867 and n1917

influx of peasants looking for work in the cities

4

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why did some peasants settle only temporarlily

retained their land and returned to their villages to help out their families for harvest

5

developments in working and living conditions in towns: how many people living in St Pt by 1914 were peasantsa by birth

3/4

6

developments in working and living conditions in towns: how did a peasants atmosphere surround the workers quarters in the city

livestock roamed the streets are there were numerous outdoor peasant markets, including one of red square

7

developments in working and living conditions in towns: how were facilities inadequate

-workers lived in overcorwded abd dirty barracks owned by factory workers
-ate in canteen and washed in communal bathrooms

8

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what percentage of houses in st pt at turn of century had no running water/ sewage system

40%

9

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why is it unsurprsising that 30000 inhabitants died of cholera in 1908-09

excrement set in piles in back yards and collected by wooden carts at night

10

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why did rents reamin high despite awful conditions

demand for work and accomodation high

11

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what did workers wages vary according to

whether unskilled/skilled, occupation followed, amount of overtime put in or amount deducted in fines

12

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why were amogst lowest paid

women

13

developments in working and living conditions in towns: when were conditions at their worst

industrial depression of 1900-08

14

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what happened to workers wages when industry began to revive

failed to keep pace with inflation

15

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what were normal factory hours reduced to by 1914

10 hours

16

developments in working and living conditions in towns: how did education spread

85% rise in primary education 1905-1914
gov promoted development of technical schools and unis

17

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what were inadequacies of education

investment in education far less than in railways and only 55% children in full time education by 1914

18

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what was it easy for towns and cities to become breeding places for

political discontent

19

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why was poltiical activism comparatively rare before 1905

strike activity illegal and secret police efficient
relatively small number of workers and own desperation to get and retain jobs

20

developments in working and living conditions in towns: why did workers at lena goldfields in siberia go on strike in 1912

better wages and conditions

21

developments in working and living conditions in towns: what happened to lena goldfields strikers

troops sent in 270 killed and 250 injured

22

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: why did conditions for peasant gamers not improve substantially

Strip farming persisted on 90% land and still widespread rural poverty

23

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: why did gap between richest and poorest sections of peasantry become wider

Wealthier peasant entrepreneurs/kulaks took advantage of less favoured and bought out impoverished neighbours

24

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: why were increasing numbers forced to leave their farms

Join bands of migrants labourers looking for seasonal farming work/industrial employment

25

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: why did a minority emigrate to Siberia

Encouraged by gov schemes from 1896 to sponsor emigration from over populated rural south and west to new agricultural settlements

26

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: how successful was gov drive to emigrate to Siberia

3.5 million/97 million went and scheme inadequate to alleviate pressure of growing population on resources

27

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: how did living standards vary in different parts of country

-more prosperous commercial farming in peripheral regions
-continuation of nobles landowning and backward farming methods mainly concentrated in Russian heartland

28

Developments in working and living conditions in the countryside: who tended to be better out of state peasants or privately owned serves

State peasants

29

Developments in living and working conditions in countryside: what were many peasants turned down as unfit for

Military service

30

Developments in living and working conditions in countryside: where were mortality rates higher in Russia than

Anywhere else in Europe