5: opposition 1855-1894 Flashcards Preview

history > 5: opposition 1855-1894 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: opposition 1855-1894 Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...
1

what stimulated opposition in AII reign

hope and disappointment brought by reforms

2

what did initial relaxation of censorship encourage

spread of radical literature

3

what did relaxation of controls on education increase

no of independently minded students

4

what did creation of zemstvas and dumas provide

platform for educated intellectuals to challenge tsarist policies

5

what did reform in judicial system produce

professionally trained lawyers skilled in art of persuasion

ready to challenge autocratic practices

6

why was moderate liberate opposition only small scale

only few literate and educated russians

7

what did liberal intellectuals have benefit of

education, time, wealth and interest to reflect on political matters

8

what did some intelligentsia seek the truth via

philosophical ideas eg nihilism/anarchy

9

what 2 categories did most liberal members of opposition fall into

slavophiles and westernisers

10

what did westernisers want

to catch up with the west by copying western ways

11

what did slavophiles favour

a superior Russian path to a better future

12

what was westernising liberal oppositions aim

reform the autocracy so the tsar would listen and rule in conjunction with his subjects

13

how did AII respond to st pt zemstva demanding a central body

he stood firmly against proposal

14

why did the attractions of the slavophiles diminish in 1890s

country moved forward towards industrialisation

15

why did industrialisation split the intelligentsia

some attracted by Marxist theory and some maintained more liberal stance

16

what happened in 1891-92 that left zemstva responsible for relief work

famine

tsarist gov didn't take actions

17

what did famine provide evidence for

change needed

18

among which group of people did a more radical strand of opposition develop

younger generation

19

what were young Russia held responsible for in june 1862

a series of fires in capital

20

who was 'the organisation' set up by in 1863 and what was made

students at Moscow university
more calls for reform made

21

what was student idealism and determination heightened by

increased repression of later 1860s and influence of radical socialist writers

22

what was chernyshevsky the author of

the contemporary and what is to be done?

23

what did chernyshevskys writings suggest

peasants had to be made leaders of revolutionary change

24

what did Herzen advocate in his journal

new peasant based social structure

25

what did herzen call on followers to do in 1869

go to the people

26

what view did Bakunin put forward

private ownership of land should be replaced by collective ownership and income should be based on number of hours worked

27

how did Bakunin help to introduce Marxism into russia

translated marx's communist manifesto into russian

28

when was the Tchaikovsky circle set up

1868-69

29

what was the Tchaikovsky circle

literary society that organised printing, publishing and distribution of scientific and revolutionary literature

30

what did the circle seek

social revolution