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1

what were the main staple industries in Britain 1914

textiles, steel, coal and shipbuilding

2

what percentage of exports came from staple industries in 1913

60%

3

what were the main industrial areas which produced the staples

coal mines in south wales, northern England and scotland

4

what had allowed Britain to lead in staple industries throughout the 19th century

it was the first country to have an industrial revolution

5

which countries were seen as a threat to britains dominant position in staple industries 1913

Germany and USA

6

between when was Britain key shipbuilding nation

1870-WW2

7

why was there little worry about Germany and USA making faster progress in staple industry

britains output of iron and steel continued to increase and Germany and USA had considerable advantages over britain

8

what advantages did Germany and USA have over Britain in staple industries

more access to raw materials and larger home markets

9

which other staple industries grew

coal industry continued to be profitable
cotton trade maintained strong exports

10

3 most prominent new industries

electronic engineering, chemical and motor vehicle production

11

what was new industry growth like in comparison to economy

were expanding faster than economy as a whole: 3.8% compared with 2% overall

12

how many people were working in agriculture by 1850

2 million

13

how many people working in agriculture by 1901

1,400,000

14

why had number of agricultural workers fallen by 1901

mechanisation

more imported food eaten

15

how much did farming account for employment, national income and national investment

10% 1906-1914

16

how was most british land arranged

in large estates let out to tenant farmers

17

how did tenant farmers gain profit

selling what they produced

18

how did landlords respond to agricultural prices lowering in the 1870s

lowered rents as farmers gained less from selling their products

19

why did some landowners invest more capital in their land mid19th cent

to get higher production in hope of more profit

20

why did many businessmen buy large estates

had more money than traditional farmers- wanted to gain social status as country gentlemen

21

why did farmers have to change their focus of production by 1914

agricultural depression late 19th cent and competition from abroad

22

what did farmers change their focus of production to by 1914

dairy farming and beef cattle

23

why was dairy farming and beef cattle more profitable than arable crops

crops vulnerable to overseas competition

24

what made britain leading trading nation in 19th century

-30% goods and services produced in britain sold abroad
-25% of world trade was Britain's
-dominated worlds shipping

25

how did invisible exports continue to grow in 20th century

-world leader in banking, investment and insurance
-London remained commercial centre of the world
-reliability of bank of England encouraged many foreigners to invest in british enterprises

26

what did britains earnings from invisible exports help to ensure

britain maintained healthy balance of payments despite value of imports rising and value of exports declining

27

what percentage of total national wealth was in investment overseas by 1913

32%

28

what occurred between 1870-1914 that became known as the late Victorian recession

-britain overtaken by Germany and America in iron and steel output
-rate of industrial growth less than USA
-share of worlds exports declined
-imports grew faster than exports- trade gap
-former workshop of world? now imported manufactured goods

29

what did the late Victorian recession case industrialists and politicians to raise questions about

standards in education, free trade policy and failures of industry to adapt quickly enough to new technologies and ways of working

30

why was britain struggling to keep the lead in cheap textiles, iron and steel

they invested few resources into researching new methods of improving the production of these goods than america