3: social divisions BRT Flashcards Preview

history > 3: social divisions BRT > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: social divisions BRT Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1

upper class

-wealthy landowners
-addition of those who obtained wealth from industry and commerce

2

upper middle class

-factory owners
-professionals eg. doctors, lawyers and teachers
-no of professionals risen rapidly

3

lower middle class

-non manual employees
-earned less than skilled workmen but had higher social status

4

working class

-75% population
-unskilled workers earned lot less than skilled workers
-many lived in poverty

5

what was booths conclusion on poverty

extent of poverty in London closer to 30.7% than 25% that gov claimed

6

what did booth class as living under poverty line

unable to afford adequate shelter, food or clothing

7

what did rowntree conclude that the main cause of unemployment was

economic; unemployment/low wages

8

what did rowntree investigate

-built on work of booth
-investigated poverty in York- 28% population living in poverty
-

9

what did rowntree conclude that people needed to earn to stay out of poverty

21 shillings per week

10

what did both booth and rowntree show

even those who could just meet bare necessities of life could fall into abject poverty through factors beyond their control

11

what 'factors beyond control' did booth and rowntree state caused poverty

-economic forces that led to unemployment, irregular work and low wages
-unavoidable factors such as old age, sickness and premature death of main wage earner

12

what were families affected by that could've caused poverty

lack of education, poor housing and poor diet

13

how much was liberal social reform set to cost

£16 million

14

what had to be introduced to pay for liberal social reforms

new taxes

15

what were the new taxes in 1909 budget designed to do

tax the rich in order to fund new gov measures to help needy and vulnerable

16

what ws progressive taxation and when was it introduced

income tax on a sliding scale

incomes under £3000- 9d paid for every pound they earned
incomes over £3000- 1s2d paid for every pound they earned

17

what was super tax

people with incomes over £5000 had to pay an addition of 6d to the pound

18

what was the tax on cars according to

horsepower

19

what was the tax on petrol

3d per gallon

20

what were inheritance taxes imposed upon

estates worth over £5000

21

what profits were taxed

those gained through selling land

22

why was the 1909 budget known as the peoples budget

rich now paid significantly greater proportion of their income in tax than the poor

23

why did the peoples budget meet fierce resistance in HL

conservatives had large majority- land owners

24

why was there no state provision for the poor at the start of the 20th century

the prevailing belief of 'laissez faire'

25

what was the last resort for those who were struggling

the poor law

26

what was the poor law

workhouse

27

why did people who could just afford some private insurance also struggle

provision often inadequate and prolonged periods of unemployment meant many policies lapsed

28

education act (meals) 1906

LEAs given power to provide free school meals for needy children

29

LEAs

local education authorities

30

strengths of free school meals

enabled hungry children to concentrate more

1914, 14 million free school meals per year provided