19. social and cultural impact of total war BRT Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 19. social and cultural impact of total war BRT Deck (127)
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1

conscription: how was conscription introduced differently to WW1

introduced at an earlier stage in war

2

conscription: what conscription existed April 1939

for men aged 20-22

3

conscription: what was conscription extended to in September 1940

18-41

4

conscription: what was conscription extended further to in 1942

51

5

conscription: which new responsibilities did older men take on as they were conscripted into the national service

as special constables, firewatchers or workers in civil defence or home guard

6

conscription: how many young men in uniform did army, navy and airforce have between them by mid1941

3 million

7

conscription: what had size of armed forces risen to in 1944

4.5 million plus nearly half in womens services

8

conscription: number in home guard by 1943

1.75 million

9

conscription: what improved in working class families despite shortages and rationing

nutrition standards

10

conscription: effect of war on unemployment

-fell by half 1939-42 and had virtually disappeared by 1943
-full employment available even in worst off areas of 1930s

11

conscription: what did trade union membership increase from

6.3 million to 8.9 million

12

conscription: how did the war raise the average earnings of the working class

combination of full employment, overtime and piece rate

13

conscription: what did average male weekly earnings raise by between 1938 and 1945

80%

14

conscription: what did average earnings for female workers increase by

double

15

conscription: what did increase in earnings, rationing and controls on prices reduce

income differences

16

conscription: what were the middle and upper classes hit by

high taxation, death duties and limits on profits which could be made from factories or land.

17

women: what was there an urgent demand for as in the first world war

an urgent demand for more women workers

18

women: which women could be conscripted

unmarried women between 19 and 30

19

women: what were conscripted women given a choice between

service in the Women's Auxiliary Forces or war work in industry

20

women: where were women directed into from 1940 onwards

shipyards, aircraft factories, munitions engineering, docks, hospitals and anywhere where there was a labour shortage

21

women: what proportion of factory workers were women by late 1943

over half

22

women: what did the demands of total war change for married women

married women also worked
before war they were compelled to stop work when they married

23

women: what percentage of married women were working by the end of 1943

80%

24

women: what did war work give women

more money, greater status and independence

25

women: how much less did women earn than men for the same jobs

60-70% less

26

women: why did life quickly return to normal after war for many women

they were forced to give up jobs to men returning the war

27

children: how many children did the gov move out of the main cities in Britain in September 1939

a million

28

children: how were some evacuees lucky

they found welcoming homes where they were looked after

children from inner cities often found themselves better fed and clothed than at home

29

children: what did some evacuees suffer from

neglect and mistreatment

30

children: why had more than half of evacuees returned home by January 1904

due to the phoney war