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Flashcards in 8: economic developments to 1914 Deck (64)
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1

how did russia undergo a major transformation from the mid 1893-1913

annual growth rate if more than 8% per annum

2

who was the impressive expansion initially masterminded by

witte

3

witte

finance minister 1892-1903

4

how did railway trackage increase under witte

doubled

5

how did coal output increase in southern Russia under witte

from 183 million puds in 1890 to 671 million in 1900

6

how did witte sought to state manage industrial growth

seeking capital, technical advisers, managers and skilled workers from overseas

7

when did witte introduce a new rouble

January 1897

8

why did witte introduce a new rouble

-backed by value of gold
-strengthen currency and encourage foreign confidence and investment

9

why did foreign investment decline in early twentieth century

Russian businessmen accumulated sufficient wealth to expand enterprises

10

what did witte use capital to fund

public works, develop russias infrastructure

11

how much of railways were state controlled by early twentieth century

70%

12

how much of russias metallurgical production was the state buying by the turn of the century

2/3

13

what did Gerschenkron dub the late 1890s as

'the great spurt'

14

what did the state buy out in terms of railways

smaller railway companies and extended lines

15

how many km of railways did Russia have by 1905

59,616km- 66% state owned

16

what did the railways help open up

Russian interior and allowed dmore extensive exploitation of Russias raw materials

17

how did growth of railways reinforce export drive

linked grain growing areas to the black sea ports

18

what was the building of the railway lines a stimulus to

the development of the iron and coal industries

permitted the development of new industries

19

what did fall in transport cost bring down the price of

goods

20

what did the government make money from with railways

freight charges and passenger fares

21

when did the rate of railway building slow

1908-13

22

what did Russia have by 19013 (railways)

second largest railway network in world- 62000km

23

what was the most acclaimed development in railways

transiberian railway

24

what did the building of the trans Siberian railway provide a stimulus to

industry and even greater psychological boost

25

how much of Russian coal in 1913 was the donbas region supplying

87%

26

how much pig iron in 1913 was the rich ironfields of the Krivoi rog supplying

74%

27

what was Russia the fourth largest producer of by 1914

coal, pig iron and steel

28

how did the Caspian sea port of baku grow

tremendously

29

how did Russian oil production increase 1885-1913

153 million puds to almost 570 millions

took second place in world oil production

30

which city overtook st Petersburg as an industrial centre

Moscow