Flashcards in Ch. 6: Grammar_Prepositions Deck (24)
What are the three (3) types of prepositions in Hebrew?
1. Independent / Stand Alone
(This classification is based on a prepositions's form and relationship to its object, not its meaning)
What are Maqqef prepositions?
They are connected to their objects by a raised horizontal stroke called Maqqef
What are inseparable prepositions?
They are prefixed directly to their objects and never occur independently
What are the three (3) inseparable prepositions?
1. בְּ (in, at, with, by, against)
2. כְּ (as, like, according to)
3. לְ (to, toward, for)
4 ways the inseparable prepositions (בְּ כְּ לְ ) will prefix to a noun: how will they appear before most consonants?
As the lexical form
4 ways the inseparable prepositions (בְּ כְּ לְ ) will prefix to a noun: Before a reduced or Hateph vowel?
The inseparable preposition will take the corresponding short vowel of the Hateph vowel. (This is the same type of rule that you have already learned for the conjunction וְ (5.7.3)
When an inseparable preposition is prefixed to אֱלֹהִים (God), how is it spelled?
1. The vocal Shewa under the preposition changes to a Tsere
2. The Aleph loses its vowel
Ex. לֵאלֹהִים (This spelling follows the Exception to the Second Rule of Shewa [4.11.4])
4 ways the inseparable prepositions (בְּ כְּ לְ ) will prefix to a noun: Before consonants with Vocal Shewa?
1. The inseparable prepositions are spelled with a Hireq
2. The vocal Shewa will turn silent (This is because two contiguous Vocal Shewas cannot stand at the beginning of a word [4.11.1] and so the Rule of Shewa applies)
What happens if an inseparable preposition (בְּ כְּ לְ ) is prefixed to a word beginning with יְ?
1. The first Vocal Shewa will become a Hireq and the the Shewa under the Yod will disappear
Ex. (בִּיהוּדָה) < (בְּיְהוּדָה)
(This is similar to the Rule of Shewa [4.11.2] and the conjunction וְ [5.7.2b])
4 ways the inseparable prepositions (בְּ כְּ לְ ) will prefix to a noun: In nouns with the definite article?
1. The vowel and Daghesh Forte of the definite articles are retained
2. the consonant of the preposition replaces the ה of the definite article; Examples:
הַמִּדְבָּר "the wilderness"
בַּמִּדְבָּר "in the wilderness"
What is significant about the preposition (from, out of) מִן?
It occurs as a Maqqef and as an inseparable preposition
What happens when מִן (from, out of) is used as an inseparable prep?
The נ assimilates into the following consonant and appears as a Daghesh Forte.
Ex. (מִמֶּ֫לֶךְ) < (מִן־מֶ֫לֶךְ)
What happens when מִן (from, out of) is used as an inseparable prep with a begadkephat consonant that had a Lene?
The נ assimilates into the following consonant and the Lene becomes a Daghesh Forte.
What happens when מִן (from, out of) is used as an inseparable prep with gutturals?
The Daghesh Forte is rejected by gutturals, of the assimilated נ
2. The Hireq under the מ of the preposition lengthens to Tsere
Ex. מֵאִישׁ "from a man"
(The lengthening of Hireq to Tsere is another example of compensatory lengthening learned in 5.4.1)
What happens when מִן (from, out of) is used as an inseparable prep with a word that has the definite article?
The ה of the article is retained; as in (מֵהָאָ֫רֶץ)
What happens when מִן (from, out of) is used as an inseparable prep with a word that begins with a ח??
1. The Daghesh Forte is often rejected by the guttural
2. Compensatory lengthening will usually not occur (this is called virtual doubling [see 5.4.2])
3. Compensatory lengthening will occur in some instances; such as (מֵחֶ֫רֶב) "from a sword"
What are the special uses of the preposition מִן (from, out of)?
1. Comparative use
2. Superlative use
3. Partitive use
What are the two ways that the comparative מִן can be used?
1. "than": instead of the literal "good from gold" translate "better than gold"
2. "too . . . for": instead of the literal "the work is difficult from the men" translate with a "the work is too difficult for the men"
How is מִן (from, out of) used as a superlative?
מִן (from, out of) can be combined with כֹּל (all, each, every) in the formation of מִכֹּל literally "from every"
for example: lit. "clever from every living thing of the field" instead translate "the most clever living thing of the field"
How is מִן (from, out of) used as a partitive?
1. Used to express a part of something
2. Ex. Lit. "from a fruit" instead translate "some fruit"
What are the two words that are used as the definite direct object marker (also called accusative marker)? And when is it usually used?
In Hebrew Prose
(note: This word has the same lexical form as the preposition "with, besides"; context will determine use)
Does the direct object marker make a noun definite?
No (remember, there are three ways that a noun can be definite: articular, proper name, pronominal suffix (ex. סוּסִי "my horse")
What letter in Hebrew is weak and will often assimilate as a Forte