Ch. 14 Qal Perfect, Weak Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14 Qal Perfect, Weak Deck (30)
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1

14.3 What happens in the I-Gut, II-Gut paradigms relative to the Strong?

Vocal Shewas under weak consonants (either I-Gut or II-Gut) become reduced to Hateph Pathach. This is the only change.

2

14.3 What happens in III-ח ע relative to the Strong?

1. The Silent Shewa under guttural of 2fs becomes a Pathach.
2. this form also takes an accent on its second syllable

3

14.5 How does the III-א and III-ה appear in their lexical form of 3ms?

בָּנָה
מָצָא
Have Qamets under both stem vowels

4

14.5 What happens in III-א relative to the Strong?

• Sufformative: No Dagesh lene or Shewa
• III-א: Quiescent unless sufformative gives vowel
• Stem vowel: Pathach > Qamets except where SS (3fs, 3cp)
• 2mp, 2fp keep initial VS

5

14.6 Why are there irregularities in the III-ה

The Hey drops out in every other form (the 3fs still has a Hey, but that is the suffix)

6

14.6 What happens in III-ה relative to the Strong?

1. Root: Drop III-ה
2. Sufformative: No Dagesh Lene or Shewa
3. 3fs adds (תָה)
4. Stem vowel: Hireq Yod in all 2nd 1st person forms
5. 3cp becomes 2 consonants with sufformative; and no Shewa
6. All forms have an initial Qamets except for 2mp, 2fp which has VS (3fs has a metheg)

7

14.6 In the Qal Perfect, what is the diagnostic for a III-ה

The Hireq Yod (outside the lexical form)

8

14.8 What is a helpful way of identifying the Qal Perfect of Geminate verbs? And what is the diagnostic feature?

The presence of a Holem Waw (though not present in lexical form, 3fs, and 3cp; but in each of these forms you can clearly see the geminate consonants)
2. The Dagesh Forte in most forms

9

14.9 What happens in Geminate relative to the Strong?

1. Sufformative: No Dagesh Lene or Shewa
2. 2nd and 1st person: Assimilate change vowels
בַבּוֹ
3. Initial Qamets becomes Pathach in all 2nd and 1st (including 2mp, 2fp)
4. 3rd person forms are normal

10

What are the two types of Geminate verbs?

1. the lexical form has two of the same consonants that in the 1st and 2nd person become a Forte
2. the lexical form only has two consonants; a Forte will show up in the second consonant in every other form (even the other 3rd person forms)

11

14.10 What are the most frequent doubly weak verbs?

1. III-ה
2. and either I-Guttural or II-Guttural

12

14.10 How do I determine what the changes are in the doubly weak verbs?

1. first master all the previous categories
2. Doubly are a combination of the types of changes in the weak verbs

13

14.12 Why are biconsonantal verbs called also "hollow" or II-י/ו verbs?

1. In some conjugations, these verbs have a medial vowel letter
2. But in the Qal perfect these medial vowel letters are not present
(these forms have as the lexical form the Qal Infinitive, not the perfect 3ms)

14

What Biconsonantal verbs are considered strong?

1. Ones with a Shureq and Hireq Yod medial vowel letter

15

What Biconsonantal verbs are considered weak?

1. Ones with a Holem Waw

16

What are the patterns for the strong Biconsonantal verbs?

1. Accent the first syllable if word ends in a vowel.
2. 2nd 1st person: Vowels are Pathach + Silent Shewa
3. All 3rd-person forms only have Qamets under the first root consonant (not counting sufformative; this includes the 2mp, 2fp)
(note the sufformative has the Dagesh and preceeding SS)

17

What are the patterns for the weak Biconsonantal verbs? (those with a Aleph in the second consonant)

1. all forms have Qamets under the first root consonant.
2. Accent the first syllable if word ends in a vowel.
3. The א is quiescent, so no daghesh in initial ת nor Shewa (will only take vowel of sufformative.

18

With the strong and weak Qal verbs we have learned, which ones keep their consonants?

1. Strong
2. I-Guttural, II-Guttural
3. III-ח/ע
4. III-א

19

With the strong and weak Qal verbs we have learned, which ones drop a consonant?

1. III-ה
2. geminate verbs
3. biconsonantal only have two

20

What happens to נָתַן in its conjugation?

The final נ assimilates into the consonant at the beginning of the Perfect sufformative in all 1st and 2nd person; Example:
נְתַתֶּם

21

What is the one minor deviation that the verb הָיָה inflects from other III-ה verbs?

There is a Hateph Seghol in the 2mp and 3mp (the guttural cannot take the VS and so takes a reduced); Example:
הֱיִיתֶם

22

Note:

The Qal Perfect of יָרֵא and מוּת are both weak and intransitive

23

What is unique about the מוּת paradigm?

Same as other Biconsonantals
1. Accent the first syllable if word ends in a vowel.
Unique
1. First vowel is Tsere in all 3rd person
2. All 1st and 2nd forms want to be Pathach, SS unless sufformative vowel obstructs SS
(מַתְּ)
3. the Taw has assimilated into the sufformative in all 2nd and the 1cs
4. The 2ms takes a Taw Qamets Hey sufformative
מַ֫תָּה

24

What happens to the sufformative taw when preceded by a vowel?

The taw in the sufformative can’t take a Dagesh Lene or Shewa

25

If there are only two root consonants
in the Qal Perfect, how to tell what kind of verb it is? For a Third person Verb.

• Biconsonantal has accent on first syllable.
• Otherwise, it is a 3-ה verb.

26

If there are only two root consonants
in the Qal Perfect, how to tell what kind of verb it is? For a 1st and 2nd person Verb.

• 3-ה
(בָּנִ֫יתִי) if stem vowel is סִי
• Geminate
(סַבּ֫וֹתִי) if stem vowel is סּוֹ
• Biconsonantal
(קַ֫מְתִּי) if stem vowel is סְ
• 3-נ or 3-ת
(כָּרַ֫תִּי) if stem vowel is סַ and has Dagesh in first consonant of the sufformative

27

Besides the biconsonantal, what is the other paradigm that will have accents on the first syllable? and in what person, number?

1. weak geminate (there is fear of confusion because the geminate will have a forte in the last stem consonant)
2. 3fs, 3cp

28

What is the typical form for the weak geminate?

1. 1st and 2nd person are the same as the strong
בַבּוֹ
2. 3rd person is different (there is assimilation; no Holem Waw though)
בַבּ
3. 3fs, 3cp is accented first syllable (still accented on 2ms, 1cs, and 1cp second syllable)

29

In the 2fs forms, what governs whether the final SS is present?

If the sufformative has lost its dagesh and preceding SS

30

Out of all the weak forms, which ones maintain an initial vocal Shewa on the 2mp and 2fp?

III - א
III - ה
And these are give me's
III - ח ע
I / II - Guttural

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