Ch. 8: Pronouns Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 8: Pronouns Deck (29)
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1

What are the four (4) kinds of Hebrew pronouns?

1. Independent Personal Pronouns (IPP)
2. Demonstrative Pronouns (DP)
3. Relative Pronouns
4. Interrogative Pronouns

2

What are the independent personal pronouns?

First, Second, and Third person personal pronouns that can be inflected for gender and number.

3

What personal pronouns have both masculine and feminine forms?

Second and Third personal pronouns (which makes First person personal pronouns--both singular and plural--common)

4

What is the function of the independent personal pronouns?

They are subjective

5

What is the word order when a personal pronoun is used in a verbless clause?

The pronoun may precede or follow the noun or adjective (as with the predicative use of the adjective [7.5.2])

6

What if a personal pronoun is used with a noun, but there are no verbs?

A form of 'to be' must be supplied

7

What are the two uses of the demonstrative pronoun?

1. Pronoun ('this is the man')
2. Adjective ('this man')

8

What are the three levels of specificity that can refer to a noun?

1. indefinite ('a man')
2. definite ('the man')
3. Demonstrative ('this man')

9

NOTE: The masculine and feminine singular forms אוּה and הִיא are identical to the third person masculine and feminine independent personal pronouns. Notice the ambiguity

הוּא הָאִישׁ
either "He is the man" (personal pronoun) or
"That is the man" (demonstrative pronoun)

10

NOTE: The masculine and feminine singular forms אוּה and הִיא are identical to the third person masculine and feminine independent personal pronouns. Notice the ambiguity

הִיא הָאִשָּׁה
either "She is the woman" (personal pronoun) or
"That is the woman" (demonstrative pronoun)

11

What is the structure of an adjectival demonstrative?

1. It will follow the noun it is modifying
2. It will agree the noun in gender, number, and definiteness
(similar to the adjectives [7.5.1])

12

If an adjective is used along side an adjectival demonstrative what will be the structure?

noun, adjective, demonstrative (from right to left)
הָאִישׁ הַטּוֹב הַזֶּה (this good man)

13

What is the structure of a pronominal demonstrative?

1. It will precede the noun it is modifying
2. It will agree with the noun in gender and number
3. It will not agree in definiteness (just like the predicative use of the adjective [7.5.2])

14

If an adjective modifies a noun that also has an accompanied pronominal demonstrative, what is the structure?

demonstrative, noun, adjective (from right to left)
זֶה הָאִישׁ הַטּוֹב (This is the good man.)

15

Does the independent relative pronoun inflect according to gender and number?

no
also it may or may not appear with a Maqqef.

16

What are the most common Hebrew interrogatives?

מִי (who? whom?)
מָה (what?).

17

What are the forms that מָה can take and when do they usually appear?

(מָה) when a guttural follows (compensatory lengthening)
(ּ מַה) most consonants (note the Daghesh Forte)
(מֶה) when the following word begins with עָ הָ חָ
[This pattern follows the article; also there are numerous exceptions]

18

What is the interrogative particle?

(הֲ)
The interrogative particle is another way Hebrew asks a questions, by prefixing it to the first word of the interrogative clause (those that ask a question).

19

What are the three forms for the interrogative particle, and in what cases will you see these forms?

1. the usual/most common spelling. (הֲ)
2. before most gutturals and consonants with Shewa. (הַ)
3. before gutturals with Qamets (e.g. אָ) (הֶ)

20

What part of speech does the interrogative particle typically prefix to? And why is this helpful?

1. verbs
2. Since this can look similar to the article.

21

What are the three ways to tell the difference between the interrogative particle (הֲ) and the article?

1. There typically is not a Daghesh Forte
2. Typically prefixed to a verb or another particle
3. The spelling הֲ is not one of the spellings for the article

22

What are the first letters in near demonstrative, singular?

near singulars (m. and f.) start with ז

23

As far as personal pronouns and demonstratives what single letter is more associated with masculine and what with feminine? And is that for singular or plural or both?

1. masculine מ
2. feminine נ
3. plural only

24

What type of personal pronouns and demonstratives have הא as the two main consonants?

1. 3rd person singular pronouns
2. far demonstratives, singular
(הוּא) he/it (3ms); that (ms)
(הִיא/הִוא) she/it (3fs); that (fs)

25

What type of personal pronouns have אַתּ as the first syllable?

2nd person singular and plural
(אַתָּה) you (2ms)
(אַתְּ) you (2fs)
(אַתֶּם) you (2mp)
(אַתֶּ֫נָה)you (2fp)

26

What type of personal pronouns and demonstratives begin with הֵ?

1. 3rd person plural
2. far demonstrative, plural
(הֵן ,הֵ֫נָּה) they (3fp); those (fp)
( הֵמָּה ,הֵם) they (3mp); those (mp)

27

What type of personal pronouns have אנ as the first two consonants?

1st person singular and plural
(אֲנִי) I (1cs)
(אֳנַ֫חְנוּ) we (1cp)

28

What are two general guidelines for translating the relative pronoun?

1. Use "that" for essential information and "which" for nonessential information
2. Use "what" and "which" to refer to things and "who" and "whom" and "whose" to refer to people

29

What happens when the proximate demonstrative is repeated?

It acquires a correlative meaning
זֶה .... זֶה
"the one... the other"
אֵ֫לֶּה....אֵ֫לֶּה
some.... others

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