Masculine singular noun ending(s)?
Masculine plural noun ending(s)?
Masculine dual noun ending(s)?
Feminine singular noun ending(s)?
Most common is the Qamets He ( ה ָ ), but others include: Pathach Taw ( ת ַ ) / Seghol Taw ( ת ֶ ) / Hireq Yod Taw ( ית ִ ) / Shureq Taw ( וּת )
Feminine plural noun ending(s)?
Holem-waw taw (תּוֹרוֹת)
On occasion the feminine plural ending וֹת will be spelled how?
Defectively ת ֹ
Feminine dual noun ending(s)?
תַ֫יִם+(qamets) (two hands) (יָדַ֫יִם)
(two laws) (תּוֹרָתַ֫יִם
What are the two consonants that are associated with femine word endings?
What are the requirements to have a propretonic reduction?
1. Two-syllable noun
2. Accented on final syllable
3. Changeable long vowel in the pretonic syllable
What is propetonic reduction?
1. Addition of plural ending will cause the changeable long vowel to be in an open propretonic syllable
2. It will reduce to a Shewa or or Hateph Pathach if guttual
(דְּבָרִים) < (דָּבָר)
(עֲנָנִים) < (עָנָן)
What are Segholate Nouns?
Two-syllable nouns that are accented on the first syllable (they are called this because they typically have two Seghol vowels; מֶ֫לֶךְ)(though some only have one סֵ֫פֶר)
(some dont have any Sehols though, but are still accented on the first syllable)
What is segholate pluralization?
While the vowel pattern of Segholate nouns will vary in the singular, they will always have the same vowel pattern in the plural.
What is the typical pattern of Segholate pluralization?
1 Consonant: Vocal Shewa / Hateph (only Hateph Pathach)
2 Consonant: Qamets
3 Consonant: only what is included in the new ending
(מְלָכִים) < (מֶ֫לֶךְ)
What is a Geminate noun?
Nouns that appear to only have two root consonants (in actuality, they originally had three root consonants; there are still a few Geminate nouns that occasionally preserve both Geminate consonants [לֵבָב] heart)
What happens to a Geminate noun when it is pluralized?
The consonant that originally appeared twice will now be written once with Daghesh Forte (not all biconsonantal nouns were Geminante; such as Father, son, name [עַמִּים] < [עַם] people)
What is unusually about the pluralization of Masculine Nouns ending with ה ֶ
Masculine nouns like (שָׂדֶה) drop the (ה ֶ) before taking a plural ending
Nouns of this type frequently take the feminine plural ending (וֹת)
(שָׂדוֹשׂ) < (שָׂדֶה) field
(מַעֲשִׂים) < (מַעֲשֶׂה) work
What is irregular pluralization?
Irregular and unpredictable in their pluraliztion - e.g. from אִישׁ to אֲנָשִׁים mam to men (these will just have to be memorized)
What is the first rule of Shewa?
Hebrew will not allow two contiguous Vocal Shewas
What happens if a word were to start with two contiguous Shewas?
The first Shewa becomes a Hireq and the second Vocal Shewa becomes silent.
For exampel the prefixing of the prep. לְ (to, for) to נְבִיאִים (prophets) would produce לְנְבִיאִים but get reduced to לִנְבִיאִים
What is an exception to the first Shewa rule?
when a word begins with יְ
What happens when word begins with יְ and another Shewa is prefixed on it?
The first Vocal Shewa will change to a Hireq and the second Vocal Shewa will dissapear
(לִיהוּדָה) < (לְיְהוּדָה)
What is the second rule of Shewa?
Hebrew does not allow a Vocal Shewa that is followed by a guttrual consonant that has a reduced or Hateph vowel. (for example: בְּחֲלוֹם)
What happens when a the second rule is violated?
The first vocal Shewa will change to the corresponding short vowel of the Hateph
(בַּחֲלוֹם) < (בְּחֲלוֹם)
What is an exception to the second rule of Shewa?
When a preposition like לְ is prefixed to a word that begins with an א and a reduced vowel, the א losses its vowel and the initial Shewa is becomes a lengthened form of the reduced vowel that dropped off (that was under the א)
(לֵאלֹהִים) < (אֱלֹהִים)
Explain why מֶ֫לֶך is spelled מְלָכִים in the plural?
1. Propretonic reduction (מְ)
2. The לֶ becomes an open pretonic syllable and long vowels will always be in this type of syllable
What types of words will typically not have a change when pluralized?
1. monosyllabic nouns with an unchangeable long vowel (שִׁיר / אוֹת)
2. Two-syllable with unchangeable long vowel in the second syllable and shewa/hateph in the first (רְחוֹב / חֲלוֹם)