Ch. 5: Grammar_Article and Conjunction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5: Grammar_Article and Conjunction Deck (27)
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1

What are three ways a Hebrew noun can be definite?

1. Articular
2. Proper nouns
3. Nouns with possessive pronouns

2

What comprises the definite article?

1. הַ
2. Daghesh Forte in the first consonant of the noun
Ex. (הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ) < (מֶ֫לֶךְ)

3

What happens when the article is prefixed onto an initial Begadkephat consonant that was a Lene?

With the addition of the article, the Daghesh Lene is replaced with a Daghesh Forte.

4

Since Daghesh Forte cannot be used with gutturals (including ר) what happens when the article is prefixed? (Provide the three main categories)

1. Compensatory lengthening
2. Virtual doubling
3. Irregular Seghol vowel

5

Explain compensatory lengthening when the article is prefixed onto a word that begins with a guttural.

With initial א ,ע ,ר, the rejection of the daghesh forte results in the lengthening of the pathach to a qamets.
(הָאִישׁ) < (אִישׁ)

6

What are the thee pattern of compensatory lengthening in Hebrew?

1. Pathach lengthens to Qamets (בַּ becomes בָ)
2. Hireq lengthens to Tsere (בִּ becomes בֵּ)
3. Qibbuts lengthens to Holem (בֻּ becomes בֹּ)

7

Explain virtual doubling when the article is prefixed onto a word that begins with a guttural.

With initial ה or ח, the daghesh forte is rejected but the pathach vowel does NOT lengthen.

8

Explain irregular Seghol vowel when the article is prefixed onto a word that begins with a guttural.

When nouns begin with an unaccented עָ הָ חָ (the חָ may also be accented), the definite article takes a Seghol, without a Daghesh Forte.

Example: חָכָם (wise man) becomes הֶחָכָם (the wise man).

9

What happens when the article is prefixed to יְ or מְ?

In most cases the nouns that begin with יְ or מְ do not take the Dagesh Forte.
2. The Pathach does not lengthen to the Qamets (as in the compensatory lengthening).
3. The loss of the Daghesh is governed by the rule of sqnmlwy
(The sqnmlwy must have the Shewa to count)

10

What is sqnmlwy?

1 a mnemonic device that identifies all "s" type consonants ס, צ, שׂ, שׁ
2. plus the corresponding letters: q (ק), n (נ), m (מ), l (ל), and y (י)
(The sqnmlwy must have the Shewa to count)

11

What happens when a sqnmlwy letter appears with a Daghesh Forte and a Vocal Shewa?

The Daghesh Forte will frequently drop out, but it does not always drop out (remember sqnmlwy stands for all "s" type consonants ס, צ, שׂ, שׁ
plus the corresponding letters: q (ק), n (נ), m (מ), l (ל), and y (י)
(The sqnmlwy must have the Shewa to count)

12

When will the conjunction וְ appear as וְ?

Before most consonants. Occurs this way about 50% of the time.

13

When will the conjunction וְ appear as Shureq (וּ)?

In two circumstances:
(1) Before (bump rule) פ, מ, ב
(2) Before most consonants that have a Vocal Shewa.

14

What happens to the "bump" letters that have an initial Daghesh Lene when the conjunction is prefixed to it?

It will lose the Lene

15

Exception to the (Waw with vocal Shewa) וְ appearing as a (Shureq) וּ: What happens if the וְis prefixed to a word that begins with the syllable יְ?

These two syllables contract to וִי (this is the exception to the First Rule of Shewa in 4.11.2)

16

What happens to the conjunction וְ when it is prefixed before a reduced or Hateph vowel?

It is spelled with the corresponding short vowel of Hateph vowel. For example: חֲלוֹם (dream) becomes וַחֲלוֹם. (this is the Second Rule of Shewa)

17

What is the exception to the conjunction וְ when it is prefixed before a reduced or Hateph vowel?

When אֱלֹהִים (God) occurs with וְ, it is spelled וֵאלֹהִים (and God). (This is an Exception to the Second Rule of Shewa learned in 4.11.4)****This applies to this rule, this is not a general rule****

18

What can happen at times when the word is monosyllabic and words with an initial accent when a וְ is prefixed?

The conjunction וְ may be spelled with a Qamets (וָ).
(It seems that, if this occurs with another rule [such as the bump or with an initial vocal Shewa] the other rule wins)

19

Why is the conjunction וְ sometimes spelled with a Qamets (וָ) when it is prefixed to monosyllabic words and words with an initial accent?

Because the first syllable will then be a open pretonic syllable, which long vowels prefer

20

Summary: What are the four (4) basic spelling possibilities for the conjunction וְ?

1. Before most consonants, conjunction will appear as וְ.
2. Before ב ,מ ,פ ("bump" rule) and syllables beginning with Vocal Shewa, conjunction will appear as וּ (Shureq).
3. Before Hateph vowel, conjunction is spelled with corresponding short vowel of the Hateph vowel.
4. Before monosyllabic words and certain words with initial accent, conjuction is spelled with qamets (וָ).

21

How will you know if a word in Hebrew has the conjunction prefixed or if it is just another word that starts with ו?

1. Only 10 Hebrew words that show up about 30 times start with the consonant ו
2. So 99% of the time, if the word starts with ו, it will be the conjunction

22

What are four special uses of the definite article that do not correspond to English usage?

1. Demonstrative Adjective ("This king")
2. Vocative ("O king")
3. Superlative
4. Possessive Pronoun ("My king")

23

How is the Superlative use of the definite article used?

1. It is used with adjectives
2. In stead of using a positive adj use superlative
"the good and the upright"
"the best and the most upright"

24

Even though Hebrew does not have an indefinite article, how does Hebrew sometimes mark indefiniteness?

1. אֶחָד (ms) "one"
2. אַחַת (fs) "one"
(Ex. אִישׁ אֶחָד literally one man; but can be translated as "a man" or "a certain man")

25

Summary: What are the four forms that the article will take?

1. Basic form (basic and with Begadkephat letters)
2. הָ (gutturals: א ע ר)
3. הַ (gutturals: ה ח יְ מְ)
4. הֶ (gutturals: הָ חָ עָ unaccented [though ח can be accented])

26

In a small group of words, the addition of the article causes the vowel under the first consonant to lengthen to a Qamets, what are these words?

אֶ֫רֶץ
(people) עַם
(garden) גַּן
(mountain) הַר
אֲרוֹן (ark)

27

What is the exception to the article's virtual doubling in the case of יְ or מְ?

If the second syllable of the word begins with ע or ה, the article will take the Dagesh Forte as normal

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