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Flashcards in Cognition and Development Studies Deck (48)
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1

Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development-Children form individual mental representations from Discovery-Howe-Method

She put children aged 9 to 12 years in groups of four to study and discuss the movement of objects down a slope. Their understanding of this topic was assessed before and after the discussions

2

Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development-Children form individual mental representations from Discovery-Howe-Results

The children were found to have increased their knowledge and understanding. However, the children has not come to the same conclusion or picked up the same facts about movement down a slope

3

Sensorimotor Stage-Piaget-Method

He observed babies looking at objects as they were moved from sight throughout the child's first year

4

Sensorimotor Stage-Piaget-Results

Before 8 months of age, the child immediately switched their attention away from the object once it went out of sight. After 8 months of age, they would continue to look at it

5

Pre Operational Stage-Conservation-Piaget-Methods

He placed two identical rows of counters side by side. In one condition, they were pushed closer together

6

Pre Operational Stage-Conservation-Piaget-Results

Young children correctly reasoned that each row of counters had the same amount. However, when the rows were closed together, pre operational children usually said that there was less counters

7

Pre Operational Stage-Conservation-Piaget-Method (Liquid)

He placed containers side by side with contents at the same height. In one condition, he poured one of the contents into a taller, thinner container

8

Pre Operational Stage-Conservation-Piaget-Results (Liquid)

Children spotted that each container had the same volume. However, young children said that there was more liquid in the smaller thinner container

9

Pre Operational Stage-Egocentrism-Piaget and Inhelder-Method

Children were shown three model mountains, each with a different feature, a cross, a house or snow. A doll was placed at the side of the model so that it faced the scene from a different angle. The child was then asked to choose from a range of photos, what the doll would see

10

Pre Operational Stage-Egocentrism-Piaget and Inhelder-Results

Pre operational children often chose the picture that matched the scene from their own point of view

11

Pre Operational Stage-Class Inclusion-Piaget and Inhelder-Method

They showed 7-8 year olds pictures of 5 dogs and 2 cats and asked them "are there more dogs or animals?"

12

Pre Operational Stage-Class Inclusion-Piaget and Inhelder-Results

Children tended to say that there were more dogs

13

Stages of Formal Operations-Piaget-Method

He tested this using Syllogisms. For example: All yellow cats have 2 heads, I have a yellow cat called Charlie, How many heads does Charlie Have

14

Stages of Formal Operations-Piaget-Results

Young children became distracted by the context and answered that cats do not have two heads

15

Conservation Study was dubious-McGarrigle and Donaldson-Method

They set up a number of conservation studies similar to Piaget' s method. In the control condition, they replicated his counters task. In the experimental condition a "naughty teddy" moved the counters

16

Conservation Study was dubious-McGarrigle and Donaldson-Results

In the control condition, most children answerad incorrectly. In the experimental condition, 62% answered correctly that the amount had not changed

17

Class Inclusion conclusions was dubious-Siegler and Svetina-Method

They tested 100 5 year olds from Slovenia, who each undertook 3 sessions of 10 class inclusion tasks, receiving an explanation after the session. In one condition, they received feedback that their must be more animals than dogs, as they were 9 animals and 6 dogs. In the other condition, they were told that there was more animals than dogs, as dogs are a subset of animals

18

Class Inclusion conclusions was dubious-Siegler and Svetina-Results

The scores across the sessions improved more from the subset group

19

Children's ability to decentre-Hughes-Method

He tested the ability of children to see a situation from others view point, using a model with two intersecting wall and 3 dolls, a boy and two police officers

20

Children's ability to decentre-Hughes-Results

Once they were familiarise with the task, children as young as 3 1/2 were able to position the doll where the police could not see him 90% of the time. 4 year olds could do this 90% of the time when there was two police officers to hide from

21

Support for the Zone of Proximal Development-Roazzi and Bryant-Method

They gave 4-5 year olds the task of estimating how many sweets were in a box. In one condition, the children worked alone. In the other condition, they worked with an older child

22

Support for the Zone of Proximal Development-Roazzi and Bryant-Results

Most children working alone failed to give a good estimate. In the help condition, the older children were observed to offer prompts, pointing the young children in the right direction. Most 4-5 year olds receiving help successfully did the task

23

Support for the idea of Scaffolding-Conner and Cross-Method

45 children were followed up in a longitudinal study were they were observed engaging in problem solving tasks with the help of their mother at 16,26,44 and 54 months

24

Support for the idea of Scaffolding-Conner and Cross-Results

Distinct changes were observed over time. As the child gained experience, the mothers used less direct interaction and more prompts. They also offered help when it was needed, not constantly

25

Scaffolding is effective in education-Verhaeghe and Van Keer-Method

7 year olds were tutored by 10 year olds, in addition to their whole class teaching. They were compared to a control group of just the whole class teaching

26

Scaffolding is effective in education-Verhaeghe and Van Keer-Results

The children who were tutored progressed further in reading than the control group

27

Violation of Expectation Research-Baillargeon and Graber -Method

24 infants aged 5-6 months were shown a tall and a short rabbit pass behind a screen with a window. In the possible condition, the tall rabbit can be seen passing as the window but the short rabbit cannot. In the impossible condition, neither rabbit was seen at the window

28

Violation of Expectation Research-Baillargeon and Graber -Results

The infants looked for an average of 33.07 seconds at the impossible event, and 25.11 seconds at the possible event

29

Perspective Taking Research-Selman-Method

30 boys and 30 girls, 20 aged 4, 20 aged 5 and 20 aged 6 took part. All were individually given a task. This involved asking them how each person felt in various scenarios. One scenario featured a child called Holly who promised her father she will no longer climb trees, but then comes across her friend whose kitten is stuck up a tree. The children were then asked to explain how each person would feel if Holly did or did not climb the tree

30

Perspective Taking Research-Selman-Results

Selman found out that level or role taking correlated with age. This lead to the development of the Stages of Development for perspective taking