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Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Experiences that add to schizophrenia


Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia-Hallucination

Sensory experiences with no basis in reality


Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia-Delusions

Beliefs that are not based in reality


Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Experiences that involve the loss of usual abilities and experiences


Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia-Avolition

A loss of motivation in the things that they normally care about


Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia-Speech Poverty

The amount and quality of speech is reduced


Classification of Schizophrenia-Evaluation

-Research shows poor validity in diagnosis-Cheniaux study
-Cheniaux study also shows poor reliability in diagnosis
-Buckley Study shows a lot of Co-Morbidity between Schizophrenia and other illnesses
-Symptom Overlap between Schizophrenia and Bi-Polar-Are they the same thing?
-Gender Bias-Longenecker study
-Cultural Bias-Those of African and Caribbean origin are more likely to be diagnosed-In these cultures, voices are seen as natural


Biological Explanations-Genetics-Runs in families

According to Gottesman, identical twins have a 48% chance of developing schizophrenia. This decreases as genetic similarity decreases


Biological Explanations-Genetics-Candidate Genes

There many many different genes that create the vulnerability to schizophrenia, according to Ripke, there are 108 different candidate genes


Biological Explanations-The Dopamine Hypothesis-Neurotransmitter

Dopamine is the most important chemical in the development of schizophrenia


Biological Explanations-The Dopamine Hypothesis--The Subcortex

In the early version of the theory,focus was on high levels of dopamine in the subcortex (areas like Brocas area). This could explain speech avolition


Biological Explanations-The Dopamine Hypothesis-The Cortex

Recent version of the hypothesis focus on the cortex,where there is low levels of dopamine,which causes negative symptoms


Biological Explanations-Neural Correlates-Negative Symptoms

Avolition is related to motivation. The ventral striatum is involved in motivation. So an abnormality functioning ventral striatum (low activity levels) May be involved in developing schizophrenia


Biological Explanations-Neural Correlates-Positive Symptoms

According to Allen,Hallucinations are caused by low activity levels in the Superior Temporal Gyrus and the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus


Biological Explanation-Evaluation

+Research Support-Gottesman and Tienari studies
-Mixed Evidence for Dopamine Hypothesis-Some dopamine agonists make symptoms worse, but some genes code for unrelated chemicals (not dopamine)
-Correlation Causation Problem-Don't know if Neural Correlates cause schizophrenia,or are an result of schizophrenia


Psychological Explanations-Family Dysfunction-Schizophrenogenic Mother

According to Fromm Reichmann,the schizophrenogenic mother is cold,rejecting and controlling which creates a tense family environment. This leads to distrust,and then paranoid delusions which lead to schizophrenia


Psychological Explanations-Family Dysfunction-Double Bind Theory

According to Bateson, the child receives mixed messages on what the right thing to do is. When they do the wrong thing, they are punished with a withdrawal of love. This leaves them thinking that the world is cold and confusing,and they start to develop paranoid delusions,which increases the chance of getting schizophrenia


Psychological Explanations-Family Dysfunction-Expressed Emotion

Expressed Emotion is the level of negative emotion expressed towards a patient. It contains certain elements
-verbal criticism
-Emotional Over involvement
High levels of EE causes stress for the patient. This can be a source of stress that triggers the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia


Psychological Explanations-Cognitive Explanations-Metarepresentation

Metarepresentation is the ability to reflect on our thoughts and behaviors. Dysfunction in this ability can be used to explain hallucinations as we cannot recognize our own thoughts


Psychological Explanations-Cognitive Explanations-Central Control

The ability to suppress automatic responses while we carry out deliberate actions. Disorganized speech and thoughts could be the result of the inability to suppress automatic thoughts triggered by other thoughts


Psychological Explanation-Evaluation

+Research Support-Read study
-Weak evidence for family based Psychological Explanations-Cognitive Explanations-nation-no direct evidence for schizophrenogenic mother and double bind-these explanations may encourage parent blaming
+Research support for cognitive-Strirling Study
-No clear evidence for the direction of causality between cognitive and biological factors


Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia-Drug Therapy- Typical Anti psychotics

These were used in the 1950's and 1960's and are a dopamine antagonist. Chlorpromazine is an example of one of these drugs. They dampen down dopamine receptors reducing symptoms like hallucinations. However, Chloropromazine is also a sedative, and has been used to sedate patients rather than help them treat their schizophrenia


Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia-Drug Therapy- Atypical Anti Psychotics-Clozapine

Developed in 1960's, and after killing some patients from a blood condition, it was discovered to be more effective than typical anti psychotics. It works the same way as Chloropromazine does, but without the side effects of a sedative


Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia-Drug Therapy- Atypical Anti Psychotics-Risperidone

Developed in 1990's. Works like Clozapine but without the dangerous side effects


Biological Treatments for Schizophrenia-Drug Therapy- Evaluation

+Research Support- Thornely and Meltzer studies
-Serious Side Effects
-Use of Antipsychotics depends on Dopamine Hypothesis-For these drugs to work, we need to accept the dopamine hypothesis as fact
-Biologically Reductionist


Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia-CBT

CBT can be used to help the patient make sense of how their delusions and hallucinations impact on their behaviour. Just understanding where symptoms come from can help the patient. CBT will also challenge those beliefs, so the patient learns that the beliefs are not based on reality


Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia-Family Therapy

Family therapy works with the patient and their families to improve communication within the family, and to reduce expressed emotion


Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia-Family Therapy- How it Helps

According to Pharaoh, a range of strategies by which family therapies aim to improve communication:
-Forming a Therapeutic Relationship with all family members
-Reducing stress of caring for a schizophrenic
-Improving the ability of the family to anticipate and solve problems
- Reducing anger and guilt


Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia-Token Economy

Used in institutional settings for patients who have picked up maladaptive behaviours. Token economy can be used to modify these behaviours to help the patient live outside of the institution. It works on the principal of Operant Conditioning


Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia-Token Economy- Tokens

Tokens are given to the patient immediately after they have done the behaviour that is to be reinforced. It is important to reward behaviour immediately, as it prevents "delay discounting" which reduces the effect of the reinforcement