Biopsychology Theories Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > Biopsychology Theories > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychology Theories Deck (62)
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1

The Nervous System-Functions

-To collect,process and respond to information in the environment
-To co-ordinate the working of different organs and cells in the body

2

The Nervous System-Central Nervous System

Made up of the Brain and Spinal Cord. The CNS passes messages to and from the brain and connects nerves to the PNS

3

The Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System

It transmits messages, via millions of neurons, to and from the CNS. It is divided into the ANS and the SNS

4

The Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System-Autonomic Nervous System

Governs vital functions in the body

5

The Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System-Somatic Nervous System

Controls muscle movement and receives information from sensory receptors

6

The Endocrine System-Function

It works alongside the nervous system to control vital functions in the body

7

The Endocrine System-Glands and Hormones

Glands produce hormones

8

The Endocrine System-Glands and Hormones-The Pituitary Gland

The major endocrine gland is the Pituitary Gland in the brain. It controls the release of hormones from all other endocrine glands in the body

9

The Endocrine System-Fight or Flight

The fight or flight response is when the endocrine and the autonomic nervous system works together.

10

The Endocrine System-Fight or Flight-What?

The fight or flight response is the bodies response to a perceived threat. When in this state, the body goes from the parasympathetic state to the sympathetic state, which causes heart rate and breathing rate to increase. Once the threat has passed, the body returns to the parasympathetic state

11

Neurons-Types-Sensory

Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and short axons

12

Neurons-Types-Relay

Connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons. They have short dendrites and short axons

13

Neurons-Types-Motor

Connect the CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons

14

Neurons-Structure

Cell body has a nucleus (contains genetic material). Dendrites protrude from cell body, which carry nerve impulse from neighboring neurons towards the cell body
Axon-Carries the impulses away from the cell body down the myelin sheath, which speeds up electrical transmission
The end of the axon are the terminal buttons, which communicate with the next neuron in the chain across the synapse

15

Neurons-Electric Transmission

When it is in a resting state, the neuron is negatively charged. When it is activated by a stimulus, it becomes positively charged, causing an action potential to occur. This creates an electrical impulse which travels down the axon towards the end of the neuron

16

Synaptic Transmission-Chemical Transmission

Each neuron is separated by a gap called a synapse. Signals within neurons and transmitted electrically. Signals between neurons are transmitted chemically, via neurotransmitters

17

Synaptic Transmission-Neurotransmitter

Once the neurotransmitter crosses the synapse, it is taken up by the postsynaptic receptor site (dendrites on next neuron). It is then converted into an electrical impulse and the process of transmission begins again

18

Synaptic Transmission-Excitation and Inhibition-Excitation

A neurotransmitter increases the negative charge of the receiving neuron, making the neuron less likely to pass on the electrical impulse

19

Synaptic Transmission-Excitation and Inhibition-Inhibition

A neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the receiving neuron, making the neuron more likely to pass on the electrical impulse

20

Localisation of Function-What is it

The theory that different parts of the brain is responsible for different actions and areas of the body

21

Localisation of Function-Hemispheres of Brain

The brain has two hemispheres. The left hemisphere controls the right hand side of the body. The right hemisphere controls the left hand side of the body

22

Localisation of Function-The Cerebral Cortex

A developed part of the brain that is covering the outer layer of both hemispheres

23

Localisation of Function-Areas-Motor Area

In the back of both frontal lobes is the motor area. It controls movement in the body. Damage may result in a loss of control over movements

24

Localisation of Function-Areas-Somatosensory Area

This area is in the front of both parietal lobes. This is where sensory information from the skin is represented

25

Localisation of Function-Areas-Visual Area

In the occipital lobe is the visual area. Each eye sends information to this area (right eye sends to left visual area and vice versa). Damage to the visual area can cause blindness

26

Localisation of Function-Areas-Auditory Area

In the temporal lobe is the auditory area. This analyses speech based information. Damage to this area may create hearing loss

27

Localisation of Function-Language Areas-Brocas

Brocas area is in the left frontal lobe and is responsible for producing speech. Damage to this area creates Broca' s Aphasia, characterised by slow and laborious speech

28

Localisation of Function-Language Areas-Wernicke

Wernicke' s area is in the left temporal lobe and is responsible for language comprehension. Damage to this area causes Wernicks Aphasia, which is characterised by nonsense words being produced in speech

29

Localisation of Function-Evaluation

+Brain Scan evidence support it-Petersen Study
+Neurosurgical Evidence-Dougherty Study
+Case Study Evidence-Phineas Gage study

30

Plasticity and Functional Recovery-Synaptic Pruning

During infancy, the brain experiences a growth of synaptic conditions. It has almost double the number that an adult brain has. As we age, connections that we do not use are deleted. This is called synaptic pruning