Issues and Debates Key Terms Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > Issues and Debates Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Issues and Debates Key Terms Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

Universality

Any underlying characteristics of human beings that is capable of being applied to all, despite differences in experience and upbringing

2

Gender Bias

When considering human behaviour, bias is a tendency to treat one individual or group in a different way. In terms of gender, research or theories may offer a view that does not represent male or female behaviour

3

Androcentrism

When normal behaviour is judged to a male standard

4

Alpha Bias

Theories that suggest there are real differences between men and women, these typically undervalue women

5

Beta Bias

Theories that ignore or minimize the differences between the sexes

6

Cultural Bias

Refers to a tendency to ignore cultural differences and interpret all phenomena through the "lens" of their own culture

7

Ethnocentrism

Judging other cultures by the standards and values of one's own culture. In an extreme form, it is the belief in the superiority of one's own culture which could lead to prejudice and discrimination

8

Cultural redativsm

The idea that norms and values can only be meaningful and understood within specific social and cultural contexts

9

Free Will

The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological or external forces

10

Determinism

The view that an individuals behaviour is shaped or controlled by external or internal forces rather than an individual's will to do something

11

Hard Determinism

Implies that free will is not possible as our behaviour is always caused by internal or external forces beyond our control

12

Soft Determinism

All events have causes,but behaviour can also be caused by our choices in the absence of coercion

13

Biological Determinism

Behaviour is caused by biological influences that we cannot control

14

Environmental Determinism

Behaviour is caused by features in the environment that we cannot control

15

Psychic Determinism

Behaviour is caused by unconscious conflicts that we cannot control

16

The Nature-Nuture Debate

Concerned with the extent to which aspects of behaviour are a product of inherited or acquired characteristics

17

Heredity

The genetic transmission of mental and physical characteristics from one generation to another

18

Environment

Any influence on human behaviour that is not genetic. This may range from pre natal influences in the womb through to cultural and historical influences at a societal level

19

The Interactionalist Approach

The idea that nature and nurture are linked to such an extent that it does not make sense to separate the two, so researchers instead study how they link and relate to each other

20

Holism

An argument or theory which proposes that it only makes sense to study an indivisable system rather than it's parts

21

Reductionism

The belief that human behaviour is best explained by breaking it down into smaller parts

22

Biological Reductionism

A form of reductionism which attempts to explain social or psychological phenomena in terms of genes, hormones etc

23

Environmental Reductionism

The attempt to explain all behaviour in terms of stimuli-response associations that have been learned via experience

24

Idiographic Approach

An approach to research that focuses more on the individual case as a means of understanding behaviour, rather than aiming to formulate general laws of behaviour

25

Nomotheic Approach

Attempts to study human behaviour through the development of general principles and universal laws

26

Ethical Implications

The impact that psychological research may have in terms of the rights of other people. This includes the way in which certain groups of people are regarded

27

Social Sensitivity

Studies in which there are potential consequences or implications either for the participants or the individuals represented in the research