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Flashcards in Attachment Studies Deck (44)
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Interactional Synchrony-Meltzoff and Moore-Method

They observed the beginnings of interactional synchrony in infants. An adult displayed one of three facial expression or one of three distinctive gestures. The child's response was recorded and analysed by experts


Interactional Synchrony-Meltzoff and Moore-Results

An association was found between the adults expression or gesture and the babies action


Interactional Synchrony-Isabella-Method

They observed 30 mothers and infants together and assessed a degree of synchronicity


Interactional Synchrony-Isabella-Results

They found high levels of synchrony were associated with a better mother-infant attachment


Parent-Infant Attachment- Schaffer and Emerson-Results

The majority of babies became attached to their mother first, and then in a few weeks or months became attached to other family members. At 18 months, 75% of the infants studied became attached to their fathers


The role of the Father-Grossman-Method

He carried out a longitudinal study looking at parents behaviour and its relationship into adolescent


The role of the Father-Grossman-Results

He found out that the role of the father's play with the infants was related to the quality of attachment between the child and its parents


Fathers and Primary Care Givers-Field-Method

She filmed 4 month old babies in face to face interaction with primary caregiver mothers, secondary caregiver fathers and primary caregiver fathers


Fathers and Primary Care Givers-Field-Results

She found out that primary caregiving fathers spent more time smiling, imitating and holding infants that secondary caregiving fathers


Stages of Attachment-Schaffer and Emerson-Method

60 babies from Glasgow and the majority where from skilled working class families. The babies and mothers were visited at home every month for the first year and then again when they were 18 months. The researcher asked questions to the mother about the kind of protest their child showed in 7 everyday situations


Stages of Attachment-Schaffer and Emerson-Results

Between 25 and 32 weeks, about 50% of babies showed signs of separation anxiety towards a particular adult, usually the mother. By the age of 40 weeks, 80% of the babies had a specific attachment and almost 30% had multiple attachments


Stages of Attachment-Schaffer and Emerson-Evaluation

+Good External Validity
+Longitudinal Design
-Limited Sample Characteristics


Animal Studies of Attachment-Lorenz-Method

He randomly divided a clutch of goose eggs. Half the eggs were hatched with the mother goose in the natural environment. The other half hatched in an incubator, where the first thing they saw was Lorenz


Animal Studies of Attachment-Lorenz-Results

The incubator group followed Lorenz everywhere, whereas the control group followed her. Where the two groups were mixed, the control group still followed their mother, while the experimental group followed Lorenz


Animal Studies of Attachment-Lorenz-Evaluation

-Cannot Generalise to Humans
-Some the results have been questioned


Animal Studies of Attachment-Harlow-Method

He reared 16 monkeys with two wire model "mothers". In one condition, milk was dispensed by the plain wire mother whereas in the second condition the milk was dispensed by the cloth covered mother


Animal Studies of Attachment-Harlow-Results

The baby monkeys cuddled the soft object rather than the wire one, and sought comfort in the soft one regardless on which one gave them milk. It showed that "comfort contact" was more important to the monkeys than food when it came to attachment


Animal Studies of Attachment-Harlow-Evaluation

+Theoretical Value
+Practical Value
-Ethical Issues


The Strange Situation-Ainsworth-Method

The strange situation was composed of 7 episodes, each of which lasted 3 minutes. It begins with a child and caregiver entering a unfamiliar playroom. Then the episodes begin.
1-The child is encouraged to explore
2-A stranger comes in and tries to interact with the child
3- The caregiver leaves the stranger and child together
4- Caregiver returns, Stranger leaves
5- The caregiver leaves the child alone
6- The stranger returns
7- Caregiver returns, and is reunited with child
The child were observed via a two way mirror.


The Strange Situation-Ainsworth-Results

Ainsworth found out that there were 3 distinct patterns in infant behaviour
-Secure Attachment
-Insecure-Avoidant Attachment
-Insecure-Resistant Attachment


The Strange Situation-Ainsworth-Evaluation

+Valid Research
+Good Reliability
-Test may be culture biased


Cultural Variations-Van Ijzendoorn-Method

32 studies using the Strange Situation were done in 8 different countries. The data was meta-analysed.


Cultural Variations-Van Ijzendoorn-Results

In all countries, secure attachment was the most common type, but the proportions varied. Insecure resistant attachment was the least common, by 30% of Israeli babies had that type. Insecure avoidant attachment were observed most commonly in Germany and least in Japan. The variations between results in the same country were 150% greater than those in different countries.


Cultural Variations-Simonella-Method

76 12 month old Italians were assessed used the strange situation


Cultural Variations-Simonella-Results

50% were securely attached, while 36% were insecure avoidant. Simonella said that is might be because of young mothers use of childcare


Cultural Variations-Jin-Method

The strange situation was used to assess Korean children


Cultural Variations-Jin-Results

The overall proportion of secure and insecure babies were in line with other countries. The majority were secure, but all bar one were insecure attached. This study has similar results in Japan as well, due to similar child rearing styles


Maternal Deprivation-Bowlby-Method

44 criminal teenagers accused of stealing were interviewed for signs of affectionless psychopathy. Their families were also interviewed in order to establish whether the thieves had a prolonged history of separation from their mothers. A control group of non criminals but emotionally disturbed young people was set up to see how often maternal deprivation occurred in the children who were not thieves


Maternal Deprivation-Bowlby-Results

14 of 44 thieves could be described as affectionless psychopaths. Of this, 12 of 14 had experienced prolonged separation from their mothers in the first two years of their lives. Only 5 of the 30 non A.P thieves had experienced separations. 2 of 44 had experienced long separations in the control group


Counter evidence to Bowlby's-Lewis-Method

Bowlby's thieve study was recreated looking at a larger sample size of 500