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Flashcards in Cognition and Development Theories Deck (43)
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Piaget theory of cognitive development-Schemas

A schema is a mental structure containing all the information we have about one aspect of the world. Children are born with a small number of schemas,including the "me schema" about themselves


Piaget theory of cognitive development-Motivation-Disequilibrium

We are motivated to learn when our existing schemas do not allow us to make sense of something. This causes disequilibrium


Piaget theory of cognitive development-Motivation-Equilibrium

We adapt our schema to the new situation by exploring and learning what we need to know. This creates the preferred metal state of equilibrium


Piaget theory of cognitive development-Learning-Assimilation

We understand a new situation and equilbriate by adding new information to our pre existing schema


Piaget theory of cognitive development-Learning-Accommodation

Occurs in response to dramatically new experiences. The child was to adjust to these by either radically changing their schemas or by forming New ones


Piaget theory of cognitive development-Evaluation

+Research to support the idea of children learning by discovery-Howe Study
+Applications in Education-Learning by discovery in reception classes
-Underplayed role of others in learning-Piaget saw adults as those who set up the situation in which discovery occurs


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Sensorimotor Stage

From 0-2 years of age, babies acquire basic physical co-ordination, object permanence (at around 8 months) and basic language


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Pre-Operational Stage

From 2-7 years of age, the child is mobile and can use language, but they lack reasoning ability


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Pre-Operational Stage-Conservation

Children fail to understand that quantities cannot change, even when the appearance of objects change


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Pre-Operational Stage-Egocentrism

Children fail to see an event from another's perspective


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Pre-Operational Stage-Class Inclusion

Children fail to recognise subsets of larger groups, eg: Dogs are a subset of the animals group


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Stage of Concrete Operations

From 7-11 years of age, the child can conserve, and perform better on class inclusion and egocentrism tasks. These improved reasoning abilities can only be used on physical objects, and the child struggles to reason about abstract or hypothetical ideas


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Stage of Formal Operations

From 11 years and up children are able to focus on the form of the argument and not the content of the argument. Piaget said that the child can now appreciate abstract ideas


Piaget Stages of Intellectual Development-Evaluation

-Dubious questioning on Conservation- Did the children think that they were meant to think the quantity had changed- McFarrigle and Donaldson study- Dubious conclusions on Class Inclusion-Children can understand Class Inclusion during pre operational stage-Siegler and Svetina study
-Study of children's ability to decentre-Hughes study -Did Piaget underestimate the abilities of children?


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Abilities

Cognitive abilities are acquired in social interaction, according to this theory. This means that they reflect the abilities of local adults and therefore they may vary between cultures


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development--Zone of Proximal Development

The ZPD is the difference in what a child can learn without help, and what a child can learn with a level of guidance. Having a expert assisting the child allows them to "cross the zone"


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding

The help given to the child by an expert to guide the child through the ZPD


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding-Stages-Recruitment

Engaging the child's interest in the task


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding-Stages-Reduction of Degrees of Freedom

Focusing the child on the task and where to start with solving it


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding-Stages-Direction Maintenance

Encouraging the child in order to help them stay motivated and continue to complete the task


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding-Stages-Marking Critical Features

Highlighting the most important parts of the task


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Scaffolding-Stages-Demonstration

Showing the child how to do aspects of the task


Vygotsky Theory of Cognitive Development-Evaluation

+Support for ZPD-Roazzi and Bryant study
+Support for Scaffolding-Conner and Cross study
+Application in Education-Can be used in Peer tutoring and one on one sessions between a teacher and student-Van Keer and Verhaeghe study
-Does not take into account individual differences


Baillargeon Explanation of Infant Abilities-Early Research

This theory was developed in response to Piaget's theory of object permanence. For this, Baillargeon developed the Violation of Expectation method to investigate infants object permanence


Baillargeon Explanation of Infant Abilities-Theory of Infant Reasoning

Humans are born with a physical reasoning system (PRS)- a innate understanding of the physical world and the ability to learn more details easily. When we are born, we have a basic understanding of object permanence. As we develop, this understanding also develops, becoming more sophisticated as it develops through our experiences


Baillargeon Explanation of Infant Abilities-Evaluation

+Better test of infant understanding that Piaget's-It eliminates the confounding variable of attention and interest-Has more validity than Piaget's
-Hard to judge what an infant understands-Cannot directly tell what an infant understands but have to infer it from their behaviour. Infants looking at impossible events for longer does not mean that they understand that the event is impossible
+PRS explain why physical understanding is universal-Its an inmate system-Make behaviour same for everyone-Universal


Selman's Levels of Perspective Taking-Stages of Development-Socially Egocentric

From 3-6 years. The child in this stage cannot reliably distinguish between their own emotions and those of others. The can identify emotional states in other, but do not understand what caused them


Selman's Levels of Perspective Taking-Stages of Development-Social Information Role Taking

From 6-8 years. The child can now tell the difference between their own point of view and that of others, but they can only focus on one of these perspectives


Selman's Levels of Perspective Taking-Stages of Development-Self Reflective Role Taking

From 8-10 years. The child can put themselves in the position of someone else and fully appreciate their perspective. However, they can only take on board one perspective at a time


Selman's Levels of Perspective Taking-Stages of Development-Mutual Role Taking

From 10-12 years. Children can now look at a situation from their own and another point of view at the same time