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The Multi Store Model of Memory-Componants-Sensory Register

`Iconic and Echoic memory stores with brief attention and high capacity. Iconic stores visual information and echoic stores auditory information. Information is transferred to next store by paying attention


The Multi Store Model of Memory-Componants-Short Term Memory

A limited capacity store 5 +-2 items with a duration of about 30 seconds. The majority of things are coded acoustically. Information is transferred to next store by rehearsal


The Multi Store Model of Memory-Componants-Long Term Memory

A store with unlimited capacity and duration. The majority of things are coded semantically. Memories are created by maintenance rehearsal


The Multi Store Model of Memory-How does it work?

The multi store memory model was devised by Atkinson and Shiffrin. Information from the environment passes into the sensory registers. Depending on what type of information it is, it will be coded differently. Each sense has a sensory store, with the biggest two being the Iconic memory, which is visual information that is coded visually and Echoic memory, which has audio information and is coded acoustically. The duration of the sensory registers is very short, (about a second) and it can hold millions of information pieces. If we pay attention to these pieces, the information goes into the Short Term Memory. The short term memory can only hold 7 plus /minus 2 objects, so it is a limited memory store. Its capacity is about 30 seconds and information is coded acoustically. If we continue to rehearse sometime in the short term memory over and over again, a process called maintenance rehearsal; the information will go into the Long Term Memory. The long term memory has an unlimited capacity and can last for lifetime. Information is coded semantically in the LTM. If we want to recall information from the LTM, it has to go back into the STM via a process called retrieval. This means that the information is in the STM, where we can remember and recall information


The Multi Store Model of Memory-Evaluation

+Has research to support it-Baddely
-There is more than one type of short term memory-found during KF case study
-There is more than one type of LTM and rehearsal


Types of Long Term Memory-Episodic Memory

A type of memory that occurs when we recall events that have happened, and the people objects and behaviours that were involved. These memories are consciously retrieved and effort needs to be present for this to occur


Types of Long Term Memory-Semantic Memory

Our memory for knowledge about the world. This includes our language skills. These memories are deliberately recalled


Types of Long Term Memory-Procedural Memory

Our memory for automatic and skilled behaviours. These memories are recalled without effort


Types of Long Term Memory-Evaluation

+Has Evidence to support it-Clive Wearing and HM case study
+Evidence for Neuroimaging Evidence-Provides a physical reality to the different types of LTM in the brain
+Has real life applications-Belleville et al study
-Problems with evidence-Case studies, lack of control


Working Memory Model-Components-Central Executive

The central executive is a component of the working memory model that co-ordinate the activities of the three slave systems


Working Memory Model-Components-Phonological Loop

A slave system that deals with auditory information. It has two parts, the phonological store and the articular control system, the latter controls maintenance rehearsal


Working Memory Model-Components-Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (VSS)

A slave system that deals with visual information. It has two parts, the visual cache (the store) and the inner scribe, which records the arrangement of objects in the visual field


Working Memory Model-Components-Episodic Buffer

Its a temporary store for information which brings together the information from the other stores, before passing them on to the long term memory


Working Memory Model-Evaluation

+Clinical Evidence- KF case study
+Studies of Dual task performance (Baddeley et al) has found out that there must be a separate system that processes visual information (the VSS)
-Lack of clarity over the central executive- we don't fully know what its role is


Interference theory-Proactive Interference

An older memory interfere with new memories


Interference Theory-Retroactive Interference

An newer memory interferes with old memories


Interference Theory-Evaluation

+Evidence from lab studies-gives that explanation more validity
-Studies use artificial material and stimuli-lacks in external validity
+Has real life studies-Baddeley and Hitch


Retrieval Failure-Encoding Specificity Principal

According to Tulving, if a cue is present when we encode (learn) the material, and when we retrieve the material, it will be easy to recall it. If the cues at encoding and retrieval are different, forgetting could occur


Retrieval Failure-Evaluation

+Evidence to support- Godden and Baddely and Carter and Cassaday
-Questions the effect of Context learning-Not strong in real life-no real life applications or external validity
-Recall vs Recognition-Absense of cues affect recall, not recognition
+Can have real life applications-Cognitive Interview


-Factors affecting EWT-Leading Questions-How do they affect EWT

The response-bias explanation suggests that the wording of the question has no effect of the participants memories, but influences how they answer


Factors affecting EWT-Leading Questions-Evaluation

+Has useful real life applications-can be used to improve the legal system
-Research studies uses artificial tasks
-Doesn't take individual differences into account-own age bias


Factors affecting EWT-Anxiety-Explaining the contradictory findings of the studies- Yerkes Dodson Law

Lower levels of anxiety produce lower levels of recall accuracy. Memory becomes more accurate as anxiety level increases. There is a point when recall will not increase as anxiety does. After this point (somewhere around medium level of anxiety), anxiety will cause recall to decrease


Factors affecting EWT-Anxiety-Evaluation

-Weapon focus of studies might be irrelevant-focus is due to the unusualness of the situation-not due to anxiety
-Uses field experiments-lack of control, but natural behaviour is on show
-Ethical issues-creating anxiety in people is ethically sensitive as it could cause psychological harm


The Cognitive Interview -The Main Techniques-Report Everything

They are encouraged to include every single detail of the event, even if it is irrelevant. It may trigger other memories


The Cognitive Interview -The Main Techniques-Reinstate the Context

They are encouraged to picture the crime scene in their mind, and recall how they felt. This is related to context dependent forgetting as returning to the place might trigger more memories


The Cognitive Interview -The Main Techniques-Reverse the Order

They are asked to recall the events in a different order. This prevents people reporting the event with their expectations of what happened, and makes people think what actually happened


The Cognitive Interview -The Main Techniques-Change Perspective

They are encouraged to put themselves in someone else's shoes. This disrupts the schemas of what they expect to happen


The Cognitive Interview -The Enhanced Cognitive Interview

The enhanced cognitive interview includes all the techniques of the cognitive interview, but also makes sure interviewers establish eye contact, minimise anxiety and getting the witness to talk slowly


The Cognitive Interview -Evaluation

-Time Consuming-takes more time than the standard police interview-less people will use it
+Some elements are more important than others-report everything and reinstate the context produce more accurate recall
+Research Support-Kohnken et al's Meta analysis