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Flashcards in Addiction Studies Deck (35)
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1

Risk Factors-Genetics-Pianezza- Results

He found out that some people lack a fully functioning enzyme which is mainly responsible for metabolising nicotine. Because expression of this enzyme is down to genetics, those with this enzyme are at a greater genetic risk of nicotine reduction

2

Risk Factors-Genetics-Kendler- Method

He used data from the National Swedish Adoption Study, and looked at adult who had been adopted as children, from families where at least one parent had an addiction

3

Risk Factors-Genetics-Kendler-Results

He found out that these people had a significantly greater risk of developing an addiction themselves, when compared to those who did not have addicted parents

4

Neurochemistry Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-McEvoy-Method

He studied smoking behaviours in schizophrenics. The drug Haloperidol is a dopamine antagonist which is use in the treatment of Schizophrenia.

5

Neurochemistry Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-McEvoy-Results

Haloperidol treatment increased smoking in this sample of participants, as they used the drug as a form of self medication, an attempt to achieve the nicotine "hit" by increasing dopamine release

6

Learning Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-Levin-Method

Rats were trained to self administer intravenous doses of a nicotine infusion by licking one of two waterspouts

7

Learning Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-Levin-Results

This behaviour increased in frequency with every session, up to 100 licks per infusion

8

Learning Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-Carter and Tiffany-Method

They conducted a meta-analysis of studies into the effects of cues. They included 41 studies that investigated a range if substance addictions, These studies presented dependent and non dependent smokers (and non smokers) with images of smoking related cues. They measured the participants desire or craving , along with physiological indicators of arousal

9

Learning Explanation for Nicotine Addiction-Carter and Tiffany-Results

They found out that dependent smokers reacted strongly to the cues. These findings were consistent across all the studies used

10

Support for Learning Explanation for Gambling-Dickerson-Method

He observed the behaviour of gamblers in real life gambling environments, 2 betting offices

11

Support for Learning Explanation for Gambling-Dickerson-Results

He found out that gamblers who placed more bets in horse races were consistently more likely than low frequency gamblers to place their bets in the last two minutes before the start of the race. Low frequency gamblers who waited until this point places their bets on the next race

12

Research into Cognitive Biases-Griffiths-Method

He used the "thinking out loud" method to see if there were any differences in the cognitive processes of regular slot machine gamblers compared with those who used them occasionally. The participants had to verbalize their thoughts as they played on the machine. A content analysis was used to classify these thoughts into rational and irrational. A semi structured interview method was also used to seek participants views on the degree of skill required to win on slot machines. Participants were also observed

13

Research into Cognitive Biases-Griffiths-Results

He found out there were no difference between regular and occasional gamblers in behavioural measures. For example, regulars did not win more more, but they did make almost six times more irrational verbalisations than the occasionals. Regular gamblers were also prone to an illusion of control, and overestimated the amount of skill required to win. Finally, they considered themselves very skilful at winning at slot machines

14

Support for Cognitive theory of Gambling Addictions-Michalczuk-Method

They studied 30 addicted gamblers attending the national problem gambling clinic, and compared them with 30 non gambling control patients

15

Support for Cognitive theory of Gambling Addictions-Michalczuk-Results

The addicted gamblers showed significantly higher levels of gambling related cognitive distortions of all types. They were also more impulsive and were more likely to prefer immediately rewards even when there were smaller than the reward they could gain if they waited

16

Explains Automatic Behaviour-McCusker and Gettings-Method

They used a modified stroop test in which participants had to identify as quickly as possible the ink colour in which the word was printed in.

17

Explains Automatic Behaviour-McCusker and Gettings-Results

Gamblers took longer to perform this task than controls when the word relates to gambling

18

Support for Drug Therapy-Stead-Method

150 high quality studies into the effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy were reviewed

19

Support for Drug Therapy-Stead-Results

All forms of NRT are significantly more effective than both a placebo and no treatment. Nasal spray was the most effective form. NRT users were also up to 70% more likely to abstain from smoking 6 months after treatment

20

Methodological Problems with Aversion Therapy Studies-Hajek and Stead-Method

They reviewed 25 studies of aversion therapies used to treat nicotine addiction

21

Methodological Problems with Aversion Therapy Studies-Hajek and Stead-Results

They found that it was impossible to judge the effectiveness of these therapies because all but one of the reviewed studies had methodological problems. The most damaging problem was the failure to "blind" to conditions. This meant that the researchers knew which participants received therapy or a placebo

22

Support for Covert Sensitisation-McConaghy-Method

He directly compared conventional electric shock aversion therapy with covert sensitisation in treating gambling addiction

23

Support for Covert Sensitisation-McConaghy-Results

After one year, those who had received covert sensitisation were significantly more likely to have reduced their gambling activities (90% CS to 30% AT). They also reported experiencing fewer and less intense gambling cravings than the aversion threated participants

24

Support for CBT-Petry-Method

She recruited pathological gamblers through advertising. They were randomly allocated to either a control group (Gamblers Anonymous Meetings) or a treatment group (GA and 8 CBT sessions)

25

Support for CBT-Petry-Results

The treatment group were gambling significantly less than the control group 12 months later. CBT that was provided face to face was more effective than CBT delivered from a workbook

26

Short or Long Term Gains of CBT-Cowlishaw-Method

11 studies comparing CBT for gambling addiction to a control group were reviewed

27

Short or Long Term Gains of CBT-Cowlishaw-Results

The studies showed that CBT has medium to large beneficial effects for periods up to 3 months after treatment. But after nine to 12 months, there are no significant differences between the CBT and Control groups

28

Research Support for TPB-Hagger-Method

They tested the TPB's predictions about alcohol related behaviours

29

Research Support for TPB-Hagger-Results

They found that the 3 factors all predicted an intention to limit drinking to the recommended amount of units. Intentions were also found to influence the number of units actually consumed after 1 and 3 months. PBC also predicted actual unit consumption

30

TPB does not explain addiction behaviour-Miller and Howell-Method

They studied the gambling behaviours of teenagers