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Flashcards in Approaches Key Terms Deck (38)
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1

Psychology

The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those functions affecting behaviour in a given context

2

Science

A means of acquiring knowledge through systematic and objective investigation. The aim is to discover general laws

3

Introspection

The first systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness into basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations

4

Behaviourist Approach

A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning

5

Classical Conditioning

Learning by association

6

Operant Conditioning

Learning by consequences

7

Reinforcement

A consequence of behaviour that increases the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. It can be positive or negative.

8

Social Learning Theory

A way of explaining behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement, combining learning theory with the role of cognitive factors

9

Imitation

Copying the behaviour of others

10

Modelling

Either imitating the behaviour of a role model OR the precise demonstration of a specific behaviour that could be imitated by the observer

11

Vicarious Reinforcement

Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing being reinforced for a behaviour

12

Mediational Processes

Cognitive factors that influence learning and come between stimulus and response

13

Cognitive Approach

An approach focused on how our mental processes affect our behaviour

14

Internal Mental Processes

"Private" operations of the mind such as perception and attention that mediate between stimulus and response

15

Schema

A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. They are developed from experience

16

Inference

The process whereby cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basic of observed behaviour

17

Cognitive Neuroscience

The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive processes

18

Biological Approach

A perspective that empathises the importance of physical processes in the body such as inheritance and neural functions

19

Genes

They make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes physical features and psychological features. Genes are inherited

20

Biological Structure

An arrangement or organism of parts to form a organ, system or living thing

21

Neurochemistry

Relating to chemical in the brain that regulates psychological functioning

22

Genotype

The particular set of genes that a person has

23

Phenotype

The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment

24

Evolution

The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations

25

Psychodynamic Approach

A perspective that describes the different forces, most of which are unconscious, that operate on the mind and direct human behaviour and experience

26

The Unconscious

The part of the mind that we are unaware of but which continues to direct most of our behaviour

27

Id

Entirely unconscious, the id is made up of selfish aggressive instincts that demand immediate gratification

28

Ego

The "reality check", that balances the conflicting demands of the id and the superego

29

Superego

The moralistic part of our personality which represents the ideal self, how we ought to be

30

Defence Mechanisms

Unconscious strategies that the ego uses to manage the conflict between the id and the superego