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Flashcards in Psychopathology Theories Deck (74)
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Abnormity-Statistical Infrequency

Any unusual or "strange" characteristic that is not the norm would be abnormal


Abnormity-Statistical Infrequency -Evaluation

+Has real life applications in the diagnosis of some conditions
-Usual characteristics can be seen as positive
-Not everyone benefits from being labelled-low self esteem


Abnormity-Deviation from Social Norms

Any behaviour that does not fit into what society views as "normal" or acceptable will be called abnormal


Abnormity-Deviation from Social Norms-Evaluation

+Has a real life application is diagnosis APD sufferers
-Not a sole explanation of abnormity-can be combined with others
-Culture based
-Can lead to human rights abuses


Abnormity-Failure to Function Adequately

This occurs when someone cannot cope with the demands of everyday life


Abnormity-Failure to Function Adequately-Rosenham and Seligman

According to Rosenham and Seligman, we are no longer functioning adequately when:
-We no longer cornform to standard interpersonal rules
- We experience severe personal distress
- Our behaviour becomes irrational or dangerous to ourselves and/or others


Abnormity-Failure to Function Adequately-Evaluation

+ Patients Perspective-Diagnosis includes their experiences
-Is it just a deviation from social norms?
-Diagnosis based on a subjective judgement done by the psychiatrist


Abnormity-Deviation from Ideal Mental Health

Occurs when we are not Psychologically Healthy


Abnormity-Deviation from Ideal Mental Health-Jahoda

According to Jahoda, we are in good mental health if we:
-Have no symptoms or distress
-Are rational and can accurately perceive ourselves
- Reach our potential
-Can cope with stress
-Have a realistic view of the world
-Have good self-esteem and lack guilt
- Can successfully work, love and enjoy our leisure


Abnormity-Deviation from Ideal Mental Health-Evaluation

+ Its a comprehensive definition-broad range of criteria
- Culturally biased- based on western individualist cultures
- Jahoda sets an unrealistic standard for good mental health



Phobics may panic in response to the presence of the phobic stimulus, and shows behaviours that include crying, screaming or running way



They will tend to go to extreme lengths to avoid the phobic stimulus. This can make it hard to go about everyday life



Sufferer remains in the presence of stimulus for a long time, but experiences high anxiety. This is unavoidable in some circumstances



This is what Phobics feel when in the presence of their phobic stimulus. It an unpleasant state of high arousal


Phobias-Emotional-Unreasonable Responses

The emotions that they feel go beyond what is reasonable. EG: Strong emotional reactions to a very small spider


Phobias-Cognitive-Selective Attention

Phobias cannot look away from the phobic stimulus, this is not useful if the fear is irrational


Phobias-Cognitive-Irrational Beliefs

Phobic hold irrational beliefs to phobic stimuli


Phobias-Cognitive-Cognitive Distortions

Phobics perceptions of the phobic stimulus is distorted : Ophidiophoboc may see snakes as alien and aggressive


Depression-Behavioural- Activity Levels

They had reduced energy levels, they withdraw from work, education and social life. However, it can have the opposite effect, called the Psychomotor Agitation, where they struggle to relax and end up pacing up and down a room


Depression-Behavioural-Sleep and Eating

They can experience insomnia or hypersomnia. Also, their appetite may increase or decrease


Depression-Behavioural-Aggression or Self Harm

They can become verbally or physically aggressive. They could also experience aggression against the self, like cutting or suicide attempts


Depression-Emotional-Lowered Mood

They have described themselves as worthless or empty. This is a very low mood



They frequently experience anger, which can be directed at the self or others


Depression-Emotional-Lowered Self Esteem

They can experience seriously low self esteem, with some people saying that they hate themselves


Depression-Cognitive- Poor Concentration

They find it hard to stick to a task, or to make decisions that we find straightforward.


Depression-Cognitive-Attending and Dwelling on the Negative

They pay more attention to negative things more than positive things. They also find it easier to recall negative memories


Depression-Cognitive-Absolutist Thinking

They think in "black and white". Either it's all good or all bad


OCD-Behavioural-Repetitive Compulsions

They feel compelled to repeat a certain behaviour, e.g: Counting


OCD-Behavioural-Compulsions reduce Anxiety

The vast majority of compulsive behaviours are performed to manage the anxiety produced by obsessions. e.g: Compulsive hand washing is done as a response to an obsessive fear of germs



They manage their OCD by avoiding all situations that could trigger the anxiety. However, this can sometimes be unavoidable, and can interfere with a persons daily life