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Flashcards in Cognition and Development Key Terms Deck (20)
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1

Cognitive Development

A general term describing the development of all mental processes, in particular thinking, reasoning and our understanding of the world

2

Schemas

Contain our understanding of an person, object or idea. They become increasing complex during development as we acquire more information about each object or idea

3

Assimilation

A form of learning that takes place when we acquire new information or a more advanced understanding of an object, person or idea. When new information does not radically change our understanding, we can assimilate it into an existing schema

4

Accommodation

A form of learning that takes place when we acquire new information that changes our understanding of a topic to the extent to which we need to either form new schemas or radically change existing ones

5

Equilibration

Takes place when we have encountered new information and built it into our understanding of a topic.

6

Stages of Intellectual Development

Identified by Piaget, they are four stages characterised by a different level or reasoning ability

7

Object Permanence

The ability to realise that an object still exists once it passes out if the visual field

8

Conservation

The ability to realise that quantity remains the same even when the appearance of an object or group changes

9

Egocentrism

The child's tendency to only see the world from their own point of view

10

Class Inclusion

An advanced classification skill in which we recognise that classes of objects have subsets are themselves subsets of larger classes

11

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

The gap between a child's current level of development, defined by the cognitive tasks that can perform unaided, and what they can potentially do with the help from another person

12

Scaffolding

The process of helping a learner cross the ZPD and advance as much as they can, given their stage of development

13

Knowledge of the Physical World

Refers to the extent to which we understand how the physical world works

14

Violation of Expectation Research

An approach to investigating infant knowledge of the world. If children understand how the physical worlds operates they will expect certain things to happen in situations. If these do not occur, the children react accordingly

15

Social Cognition

Describes the mental processes we make use of when engaged in social interaction

16

Perspective Taking

Our ability to appreciate a social situation from the point of view of other people. This cognitive ability underlies much of our normal social interaction

17

Theory of Mind

Our personal understanding of what other people are thinking or feeling

18

Autism Spectrum Disorder

A umbrella term for a wide range of symptoms, that all share impairments to three main areas: Empathy, Social Communication and Social Imagination

19

Sally-Anne Study

A study that is used in assessing theory of mind

20

The Mirror Neuron System

A system that consists of special brain cells called mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are unique because they fire both in response to personal actions and in response to the actions of others. They can be used to allow us to interpret intention and emotion in others