Research Methods Evaluations-AS Only Flashcards Preview

A Level Psychology > Research Methods Evaluations-AS Only > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Evaluations-AS Only Deck (58)
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1

Laboratory Experiments-Strengths

-High control over extraneous -High external validity
-Can be replicated-increases validity of results

2

Laboratory Experiments-Weaknesses

-Lacks Generalisations-Artificial environment/task
-Participants may behave natural-demand characteristics and low external validity
-Low mundane realism because of not everyday task

3

Field Experiments-Strengths

-High mundane realism-natural environment
-More valid and natural behaviour-high external validity

4

Field Experiment-Weaknesses

-Extraneous variables are not controlled-difficult to see cause and effect
-Can't be fully replicated
-Ethical issues as participants are not fully aware of participation-cannot consent-invasion of privacy?

5

Natural Experiments-Strengths

-Provides research opportunities for studies that may not happen for ethical reasons
-High external validity-looks at real life issues and problems

6

Natural Experiments-Weaknesses

-Naturally occurring event may be rare-hard to generalise
-Participants may not be randomly allocated-Unsure if IV affected the DV

7

Quasi Experiments-Strengths

-High control over extraneous -High external validity
-Can be replicated-increases validity of results

8

Quasi Experiments-Weaknesses

-Confounding Variables can occur-Cannot randomly allocate participants to conditions

9

Independent Groups Design-Strength

-No order effects or Demand Characteristics
-Easy to allocate participants to groups-Uses Random Allocation

10

Independent Groups Design-Weaknesses

-Chance that the groups are unbalanced-could have participant variables
-Less economical-Two different sets of participants

11

Repeated Measures Design-Strengths

-No participant variables-Same participants in both conditions
-Economical-Only one set of participants are required

12

Repeated Measures Design-Weaknesses

-Demand Characteristics-Partcipants might predict the aim of the study before the second condition
-Order Effects-Experiment is done twice
-Learning could occur

13

Matched Pairs Design-Strength

No order effects-Partcipants only experience one condition

14

Matched Pairs Design-Weaknesses

-Partcipants might not be matched with 100% accuracy-Partcipant variables could still occur
-Matching the participants is time consuming and costly-less economic

15

Random Sampling-Strength

-Free from researcher bias-The researcher cannot pick the participants for each condition

16

Random Sampling-Weaknesses

-Difficut and time consuming to fully randomize the participants
-Chance of bias-Due to laws of probability
-Partcipants could refuse to participate

17

Systematic Sampling-Strengths

-Avoids researcher bias-follows a pattern
-Provides a fairly representative sample

18

Systematic Sampling-Weaknesses

-Partcipants could work out the pattern if it is not fully random
-The participant could refuse to participate

19

Stratified Sampling- Strengths

-Avoids researcher bias- They can't choose the participants
-Provides a representative sample of the target population-Generalisation can occur

20

Stratified Sampling-Weaknesses

-Complete representation of the target population is not always possible due to individual differences
-Partcipant could refuse to participate

21

Opportunity Sampling-Strength

-Quick and cheap to get participants

22

Opportunity Sampling-Weaknessess

-Unrepresentative sample-All participants come from the same area
-Researcher bias-They choose the participants
-Partcipants could refuse to participate

23

Volunteer Sample-Strengths

-Easy to get a sample- "They come to you"

24

Volunteer Sample-Weaknesses

-Volunteer bias-a certain type of person may be attracted-affects generalisation
-Partcipants may refuse to participate

25

Naturalistic Observation-Strength

-High ecological validity as behaviour occurs naturally in its natural environment-Easy to generalize

26

Naturalistic Observations-Weaknessess

-Hard to replicate-Lack of control
-Uncontrolled Extraneous Variables

27

Controlled Observations-Strengths

-Replicable- Highly controlled
-Extraneous Variables have little effect

28

Controlled Observation-Weakness

-Findings cannot be generalised

29

Covert Observation-Strength

-All natural behaviour is on show as the participants don't know that they are being observed-Increases the validity

30

Covert Observation-Weakness

-Ethical issues- Privacy and Consent