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Flashcards in Approaches Theories Deck (41)
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Origins of Psychology-Wundt's lab

Wundt opened his lab in Leipzig, Germany. He introduced structuralism and allowed studied to be done in a controlled environment. This allowed psychology to develop as a science


Evolution of Psychology-17th to 19th Century

Psychology is a branch of philosophy. It is understood as experimental philosophy


Evolution of Psychology-1879

Wundt's lab opens, Psychology emerges as an independent discipline


Evolution of Psychology-1900's

Freud developed his psychodynamic approach, empathises the influence of unconscious thoughts on our behaviour


Evolution of Psychology-1913

Watson and Skinner establish the behaviourist approach, this becomes the dominate field in psychology for the next 50 years


Evolution of Psychology-1950's

Rogers and Maslow develop the humanistic approach which rejects the ideas of the behaviourist and psychodynamic approaches


Evolution of Psychology-1960's

The cognitive revolution occurs. The digital computer allowed psychologists to have a metaphor for the human mind. The cognitive approach is created


Evolution of Psychology-1960's 2

Bandura proposes Social Learning Theory, a mixture of behaviourist and cognitive approaches which build a bridge between the two


Evolution of Psychology-1980's

Due to technological advances, the biological approach is established and becomes the dominant perspective in psychology


Evolution of Psychology-21st Century

Cognitive neuroscience emerges as a link between the cognitive approach and the biological approach. It investigates how biology effects and influences mental states



-All behaviour is observable and learned from experience
-The basic processes are the same in all species


Behaviourism-Classical Conditioning

Created by Pavlov. It involves the association of a Neutral Stimulus with and Unconditioned Response to create a Conditioned Stimulus (The old NS) and a Conditioned Response


Behaviourism-Operant Conditioning

Created by Skinner. It involves the learner learning behaviour by its consequences, in the form of reinforcement


Behaviourism-Operant Conditioning- Positive Reinforcement

Receiving a reward or something positive when the behaviour is done, it increases the likelihood of that behaviour reoccurring


Behaviourism-Operant Conditioning- Negative Reinforcement

Doing a behaviour to prevent a negative thing from happening, it increases the likelihood of that behaviour reoccurring


Behaviourism-Operant Conditioning-Punishment

A unpleasant consequence to the behaviour, this decreases the likelihood of that behaviour reoccurring


Social Learning Theory-Assumptions

-All behaviour is observable and learned from experience
-Learning occurs directly and indirectly


Social Learning Theory-Vicarious Reinforcement

Observation of a same sex role model being rewarded causes that behaviour to be vicariously reinforced, which increases the likelihood of the behaviour being intimated


Social Learning Theory-Identification

We are more likely to imitate role model who we identify with, as they have similar characteristics or features as us


Social Learning Theory-Mediational Processes

These "bridge the gap" between the behaviourist theory and the cognitive theory
They are:
3-Motor Reproduction


Cognitive Theory-Assumptions

-Internal mental processes can be studied scientifically
-These studies are done indirectly by making inferences about the processes


Cognitive Theory-Theoretical and Computer Models

These models state that the mind works like a computer


Cognitive Theory-Roles of Schema

Schemas are beliefs and/or expectations that can affect thoughts and behaviour. They can be inmate or learned, and they act as a mental short cut, which can lead to us not seeing the "whole picture" of a place or event


Cognitive Theory-Cognitive Neuroscience

First studied by Paul Broca, who linked mental states to biological structures. In recent years, due to the advancement of science and technology, we can use brain imaging devices, like fMRI to read and understand the brain


Biological Approach-Assumptions

Biological processes (genes, neurochemistry and the nervous system) can be used to explain our thoughts and behaviour.
Everything psychological is at first biological


Biological Approach-Genetic Basis of Behaviour

Twin studies are used to see if behaviour characteristics are inherited in the same way as physical characteristics. Identical twins (monozygotic) share more characteristics with each other than non-identical twins (dizygotic). This is because MZ twins share 100% of the same genes


Biological Approach-Genotype and Phenotype

A person's genotype is their actual genetic makeup, while their phenotype is how they express those genes


Biological Approach-Evolution and Behaviour

According to Darwin, natural selection of genes based on survival value and reproduction success. It is known as "Survival of the Fittest"


Psychodynamic Approach-Role of the Unconscious

The conscious mind is the "tip of the iceberg". Majority of mind in unconscious. It is a vast storehouse of biological drives and instincts that influence are behaviour. There are also repressed memories in the unconscious


Psychodynamic Approach-The Personality-id

Operates on the pleasure principal. It is present at birth, and its demands demand instant gratification